Example: Using a Named Query with PostgreSQL

In this example, you:

  • Use the PostgreSQL database pgtestdb, user pxfuser1, and PXF JDBC connector server configuration pgsrvcfg that you created in Example: Reading From and Writing to a PostgreSQL Database.
  • Create two PostgreSQL tables and insert data into the tables.
  • Assign all privileges on the tables to pxfuser1.
  • Define a named query that performs a complex SQL statement on the two PostgreSQL tables, and add the query to the pgsrvcfg JDBC server configuration.
  • Create a PXF readable external table definition that matches the query result tuple and also specifies read partitioning options.
  • Read the query results, making use of PXF column projection and filter pushdown.

Create the PostgreSQL Tables and Assign Permissions

Perform the following procedure to create PostgreSQL tables named customers and orders in the public schema of the database named pgtestdb, and grant the user named pxfuser1 all privileges on these tables:

  1. Identify the host name and port of your PostgreSQL server.

  2. Connect to the pgtestdb PostgreSQL database as the postgres user. For example, if your PostgreSQL server is running on the default port on the host named pserver:

    $ psql -U postgres -h pserver -d pgtestdb
    
  3. Create a table named customers and insert some data into this table:

    CREATE TABLE customers(id int, name text, city text, state text);
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (111, 'Bill', 'Helena', 'MT');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (222, 'Mary', 'Athens', 'OH');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (333, 'Tom', 'Denver', 'CO');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (444, 'Kate', 'Helena', 'MT');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (555, 'Harry', 'Columbus', 'OH');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (666, 'Kim', 'Denver', 'CO');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (777, 'Erik', 'Missoula', 'MT');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (888, 'Laura', 'Athens', 'OH');
    INSERT INTO customers VALUES (999, 'Matt', 'Aurora', 'CO');
    
  4. Create a table named orders and insert some data into this table:

    CREATE TABLE orders(customer_id int, amount int, month int, year int);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (111, 12, 12, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (222, 234, 11, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (333, 34, 7, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (444, 456, 111, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (555, 56, 11, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (666, 678, 12, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (777, 12, 9, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (888, 120, 10, 2018);
    INSERT INTO orders VALUES (999, 120, 11, 2018);
    
  5. Assign user pxfuser1 all privileges on tables customers and orders, and then exit the psql subsystem:

    GRANT ALL ON customers TO pxfuser1;
    GRANT ALL ON orders TO pxfuser1;
    \q
    

Configure the Named Query

In this procedure you create a named query text file, add it to the pgsrvcfg JDBC server configuration, and synchronize the PXF configuration to the Greenplum Database cluster.

This procedure will typically be performed by the Greenplum Database administrator.

  1. Log in to the Greenplum Database master node:

    $ ssh gpadmin@<gpmaster>
    
  2. Navigate to the JDBC server configuration directory pgsrvcfg. For example:

    gpadmin@gpmaster$ cd $PXF_BASE/servers/pgsrvcfg
    
  3. Open a query text file named pg_order_report.sql in a text editor and copy/paste the following query into the file:

    SELECT c.name, c.city, sum(o.amount) AS total, o.month
      FROM customers c JOIN orders o ON c.id = o.customer_id
      WHERE c.state = 'CO'
    GROUP BY c.name, c.city, o.month
    
  4. Save the file and exit the editor.

  5. Synchronize these changes to the PXF configuration to the Greenplum Database cluster:

    gpadmin@gpmaster$ pxf cluster sync
    

Read the Query Results

Perform the following procedure on your Greenplum Database cluster to create a PXF external table that references the query file that you created in the previous section, and then reads the query result data:

  1. Create the PXF external table specifying the jdbc profile. For example:

    CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE pxf_queryres_frompg(name text, city text, total int, month int)
      LOCATION ('pxf://query:pg_order_report?PROFILE=jdbc&SERVER=pgsrvcfg&PARTITION_BY=month:int&RANGE=1:13&INTERVAL=3')
    FORMAT 'CUSTOM' (FORMATTER='pxfwritable_import');
    

    With this partitioning scheme, PXF will issue 4 queries to the remote SQL database, one query per quarter. Each query will return customer names and the total amount of all of their orders in a given month, aggregated per customer, per month, for each month of the target quarter. Greenplum Database will then combine the data into a single result set for you when you query the external table.

  2. Display all rows of the query result:

    SELECT * FROM pxf_queryres_frompg ORDER BY city, total;
    
     name |  city  | total | month
    ------+--------+-------+-------
     Matt | Aurora |   120 |    11
     Tom  | Denver |    34 |     7
     Kim  | Denver |   678 |    12
    (3 rows)
    
  3. Use column projection to display the order total per city:

    SELECT city, sum(total) FROM pxf_queryres_frompg GROUP BY city;
    
      city  | sum
    --------+-----
     Aurora | 120
     Denver | 712
    (2 rows)
    

    When you execute this query, PXF requests and retrieves query results for only the city and total columns, reducing the amount of data sent back to Greenplum Database.

  4. Provide additional filters and aggregations to filter the total in PostgreSQL:

    SELECT city, sum(total) FROM pxf_queryres_frompg
                WHERE total > 100
                GROUP BY city;
    
      city  | sum
    --------+-----
     Denver | 678
     Aurora | 120
    (2 rows)
    

    In this example, PXF will add the WHERE filter to the subquery. This filter is pushed to and executed on the remote database system, reducing the amount of data that PXF sends back to Greenplum Database. The GROUP BY aggregation, however, is not pushed to the remote and is performed by Greenplum.