About the Greenplum Architecture

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About the Greenplum Architecture

Greenplum Database is a massively parallel processing (MPP) database server with an architecture specially designed to manage large-scale analytic data warehouses and business intelligence workloads.

MPP (also known as a shared nothing architecture) refers to systems with two or more processors that cooperate to carry out an operation, each processor with its own memory, operating system and disks. Greenplum uses this high-performance system architecture to distribute the load of multi-terabyte data warehouses, and can use all of a system's resources in parallel to process a query.

Greenplum Database is based on PostgreSQL open-source technology. It is essentially several PostgreSQL disk-oriented database instances acting together as one cohesive database management system (DBMS). It is based on PostgreSQL 9.4, and in most cases is very similar to PostgreSQL with regard to SQL support, features, configuration options, and end-user functionality. Database users interact with Greenplum Database as they would with a regular PostgreSQL DBMS.

Greenplum Database can use the append-optimized (AO) storage format for bulk loading and reading of data, and provides performance advantages over HEAP tables. Append-optimized storage provides checksums for data protection, compression and row/column orientation. Both row-oriented or column-oriented append-optimized tables can be compressed.

The main differences between Greenplum Database and PostgreSQL are as follows:
  • GPORCA is leveraged for query planning, in addition to the Postgres Planner.
  • Greenplum Database can use append-optimized storage.
  • Greenplum Database has the option to use column storage, data that is logically organized as a table, using rows and columns that are physically stored in a column-oriented format, rather than as rows. Column storage can only be used with append-optimized tables. Column storage is compressible. It also can provide performance improvements as you only need to return the columns of interest to you. All compression algorithms can be used with either row or column-oriented tables, but Run-Length Encoded (RLE) compression can only be used with column-oriented tables. Greenplum Database provides compression on all Append-Optimized tables that use column storage.

The internals of PostgreSQL have been modified or supplemented to support the parallel structure of Greenplum Database. For example, the system catalog, optimizer, query executor, and transaction manager components have been modified and enhanced to be able to execute queries simultaneously across all of the parallel PostgreSQL database instances. The Greenplum interconnect (the networking layer) enables communication between the distinct PostgreSQL instances and allows the system to behave as one logical database.

Greenplum Database also can use declarative partitions and sub-partitions to implicitly generate partition constraints.

Greenplum Database also includes features designed to optimize PostgreSQL for business intelligence (BI) workloads. For example, Greenplum has added parallel data loading (external tables), resource management, query optimizations, and storage enhancements, which are not found in standard PostgreSQL. Many features and optimizations developed by Greenplum make their way into the PostgreSQL community. For example, table partitioning is a feature first developed by Greenplum, and it is now in standard PostgreSQL.

Greenplum Database queries use a Volcano-style query engine model, where the execution engine takes an execution plan and uses it to generate a tree of physical operators, evaluates tables through physical operators, and delivers results in a query response.

Greenplum Database stores and processes large amounts of data by distributing the data and processing workload across several servers or hosts. Greenplum Database is an array of individual databases based upon PostgreSQL 9.4 working together to present a single database image. The master is the entry point to the Greenplum Database system. It is the database instance to which clients connect and submit SQL statements. The master coordinates its work with the other database instances in the system, called segments, which store and process the data.

Figure 1. High-Level Greenplum Database Architecture

The following topics describe the components that make up a Greenplum Database system and how they work together.

About the Greenplum Master

The Greenplum Database master is the entry to the Greenplum Database system, accepting client connections and SQL queries, and distributing work to the segment instances.

Greenplum Database end-users interact with Greenplum Database (through the master) as they would with a typical PostgreSQL database. They connect to the database using client programs such as psql or application programming interfaces (APIs) such as JDBC, ODBC or libpq (the PostgreSQL C API).

The master is where the global system catalog resides. The global system catalog is the set of system tables that contain metadata about the Greenplum Database system itself. The master does not contain any user data; data resides only on the segments. The master authenticates client connections, processes incoming SQL commands, distributes workloads among segments, coordinates the results returned by each segment, and presents the final results to the client program.

Greenplum Database uses Write-Ahead Logging (WAL) for master/standby master mirroring. In WAL-based logging, all modifications are written to the log before being applied, to ensure data integrity for any in-process operations.

About the Greenplum Segments

Greenplum Database segment instances are independent PostgreSQL databases that each store a portion of the data and perform the majority of query processing.

When a user connects to the database via the Greenplum master and issues a query, processes are created in each segment database to handle the work of that query. For more information about query processes, see About Greenplum Query Processing.

User-defined tables and their indexes are distributed across the available segments in a Greenplum Database system; each segment contains a distinct portion of data. The database server processes that serve segment data run under the corresponding segment instances. Users interact with segments in a Greenplum Database system through the master.

Segments run on a servers called segment hosts. A segment host typically executes from two to eight Greenplum segments, depending on the CPU cores, RAM, storage, network interfaces, and workloads. Segment hosts are expected to be identically configured. The key to obtaining the best performance from Greenplum Database is to distribute data and workloads evenly across a large number of equally capable segments so that all segments begin working on a task simultaneously and complete their work at the same time.

About the Greenplum Interconnect

The interconnect is the networking layer of the Greenplum Database architecture.

The interconnect refers to the inter-process communication between segments and the network infrastructure on which this communication relies. The Greenplum interconnect uses a standard Ethernet switching fabric. For performance reasons, a 10-Gigabit system, or faster, is recommended.

By default, the interconnect uses User Datagram Protocol with flow control (UDPIFC) for interconnect traffic to send messages over the network. The Greenplum software performs packet verification beyond what is provided by UDP. This means the reliability is equivalent to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and the performance and scalability exceeds TCP. If the interconnect is changed to TCP, Greenplum Database has a scalability limit of 1000 segment instances. With UDPIFC as the default protocol for the interconnect, this limit is not applicable.