The diskquota module allows Greenplum Database administrators to limit the amount of disk space used by schemas or roles in a database.
Installing and Registering the Module
The diskquota module is installed when you install Greenplum Database.
Before you can use the module, you must perform these steps:
- Create the diskquota database. The diskquota module
uses this database to store the list of databases where the module is enabled.
$ createdb diskquota;
- Add the diskquota shared library to the Greenplum Database
shared_preload_libraries server configuration parameter and restart
$ gpconfig -c shared_preload_libraries -v 'diskquota' $ gpstop -ar
- Register the diskquota extension in databases where you want to
enforce disk usage quotas. diskquota can be registered in up to ten
$ psql -d testdb -c "CREATE EXTENSION diskquota"
- If you register the diskquota extension in a database that already
contains data, you must initialize the diskquota table size data by
running the diskquota.init_table_size_table() UDF in the database. In a
database with many files, this can take a long time. The diskquota module
cannot be used until the initialization is
=# SELECT diskquota.init_table_size_table();
About the diskquota Module
A Greenplum Database superuser can set disk usage quotas for schemas and roles. A schema quota sets a limit on disk space used by all tables that belong to a schema. A role quota sets a limit on disk space used by all tables that are owned by a role.
Diskquota processes running on the master and segment hosts check disk usage periodically and place schemas or roles on a blacklist when they reach their quota.
When a query plan has been generated for a query that would add data, and the schema or role is on the blacklist, the query is cancelled before it can start. An error message reports the quota that has been exceeded. A query that does not add data, such as a simple SELECT query, is allowed to run even when the role or schema is on the blacklist.
Diskquota enforces soft limits for disk usage. Quotas are only checked before a query executes. If the quota is not exceeded when the query is about to run, the query is allowed to run, even if it causes the quota to be exceeded.
There is some delay after a quota has been reached before the schema or role is added to the blacklist. Other queries could add more data during the delay. The delay occurs because diskquota processes that calculate the disk space used by each table execute periodically with a pause between executions (two seconds by default). The delay also occurs when disk usage falls beneath a quota, due to operations such as DROP, TRUNCATE, or VACUUM FULL that remove data. Administrators can change the amount of time between disk space checks by setting the diskquota.naptime server configuration parameter.
If a query is unable to run because the schema or role has been blacklisted, an administrator can increase the exceeded quota to allow the query to execute. The show_fast_schema_quota_view and show_fast_role_quota_view views can be used to find the schemas or roles that have exceeded their limits.
Using the diskquota Module
Setting Disk Quotas
Use the diskquota.set_schema_quota() and diskquota.set_role_quota() user-defined functions in a database to set, update, or delete disk quota limits for schemas and roles in the database. The functions take two arguments: the schema or role name, and the quota to set. The quota can be specified in units of MB, GB, TB, or PB, for example '2TB'.
The following example sets a 250GB quota for the acct schema:
$ SELECT diskquota.set_schema_quota('acct', '250GB');
This example sets a 500MB quota for the nickd role:
$ SELECT diskquota.set_role_quota(nickd, '500MB');
To change a quota, call the diskquota.set_schema_quota() or diskquota.set_role_quota() function again with the new quota value.
To remove a quota, set the quota value to '-1'.
Displaying Disk Quotas and Disk Usage
The diskquota module provides two views to display active quotas and the current computed disk space used.The diskquota.show_fast_schema_quota_view view lists active quotas for schemas in the current database. The nspsize_in_bytes column contains the calculated size for all tables that belong to the schema.
=# SELECT * FROM diskquota.show_fast_schema_quota_view; schema_name | schema_oid | quota_in_mb | nspsize_in_bytes -------------+------------+-------------+------------------ acct | 16561 | 256000 | 131072 analytics | 16519 | 1073741824 | 144670720 eng | 16560 | 5242880 | 117833728 public | 2200 | 250 | 3014656 (4 rows)
The diskquota.show_fast_role_quota_view view lists the active quotas for roles in the current database. The rolsize_in_bytes column contains the calculated size for all tables that are owned by the role.
=# SELECT * FROM diskquota.show_fast_role_quota_view; role_name | role_oid | quota_in_mb | rolsize_in_bytes -----------+----------+-------------+------------------ mdach | 16558 | 500 | 131072 adam | 16557 | 300 | 117833728 nickd | 16577 | 500 | 144670720 (3 rows)
Setting the Delay Between Disk Usage UpdatesThe diskquota.naptime server configuration parameter specifies how frequently (in seconds) the table sizes are recalculated. The smaller the naptime value, the less delay in detecting changes in disk usage. This example sets the naptime to ten seconds.
$ gpconfig -c diskquota.naptime -v 10
Configuring diskquota Shared Memory
The diskquota module uses shared memory to save the blacklist and to save the active table list.
The blacklist shared memory can hold up to 1MiB of database objects that exceed the quota limit. If the blacklist shared memory fills, data may be loaded into some schemas or roles after they have reached their quota limit.
Active table shared memory holds up to 1MiB of active tables by default. Active tables are tables that may have changed sizes since diskquota last recalculated the table sizes. diskquota hook functions are called when the storage manager on each Greenplum Database segment creates, extends, or truncates a table file. The hook functions store the identity of the file in shared memory so that its file size can be recalculated the next time the table size data is refreshed.
$ gpconfig -c diskquota.max_active_tables -v '2MiB'
Shared memory is allocated when Greenplum Database starts up, so a server restart is required after you change the value of the diskquota.max_active_tables parameter.
The diskquota module can be enabled in up to ten databases. One diskquota worker process is created on the Greenplum Database master host for each diskquota-enabled database.
The disk usage for a role is defined as the total of disk usage on all segments for all tables the role owns. Although a role is a cluster-level database object, the disk usage for roles is calculated separately for each database.
The disk usage of a schema is defined as the total of disk usage on all segments for all tables in the schema.
The disk usage for a table includes the table data, indexes, toast tables, and free space map. For append-optimized tables, the calculation includes the visibility map and index, and the block directory table.
The diskquota module cannot detect a newly created table inside of an uncommited transaction. The size of the new table is not included in the disk usage calculated for the corresponding schema or role until after the transaction has committed. Similarly, a table created using the CREATE TABLE AS command is not included in disk usage statistics until the command has completed.
Deleting rows or running VACUUM on a table does not release disk space, so these operations cannot alone remove a schema or role from the diskquota blacklist. The disk space used by a table can be reduced by running VACUUM FULL or TRUNCATE TABLE.
The diskquota module supports high availability features provided by the background worker framework. The diskquota launcher process only runs on the active master node. The postmaster on the standby master does not start the diskquota launcher process when it is in standby mode. When the master is down and the administrator runs the gpactivatestandby command, the standby master changes its role to master and the diskquota launcher process is forked automatically. Using the diskquota-enabled database list in the diskquota database, the diskquota launcher creates the diskquota worker processes that manage disk quotas for each database.
This example demonstrates how to set up a schema quota and then observe diskquota behavior as data is added to the schema.
- Create a database named test and log in to
$ createdb test $ psql -d test
- Create the diskquota extension in the
=# CREATE EXTENSION diskquota; CREATE EXTENSION
- Create the s1
=# CREATE SCHEMA s1; CREATE SCHEMA
- Set a 1MB disk quota for the s1
=# SELECT diskquota.set_schema_quota('s1', '1MB'); set_schema_quota ------------------ (1 row)
- The following commands create a table in the s1 schema and insert a
small amount of data into it. The schema has no data yet, so it is not on the blacklist.
=# SET search_path TO s1; SET =# CREATE TABLE a(i int); CREATE TABLE =# INSERT INTO a SELECT generate_series(1,100); INSERT 0 100
- This command inserts a large amount of data, enough to exceed the 1MB quota that was set
for the schema. Before the INSERT command, the s1 schema
is still not on the blacklist, so this command should be allowed to run, even though it
will exceed the limit set for the
=# INSERT INTO a SELECT generate_series(1,10000000); INSERT 0 10000000
- This command attempts to insert a small amount of data. Because the previous command
exceeded the schema's disk quota limit, the schema should be blacklisted and any data
loading command should be cancelled.
=# INSERT INTO a SELECT generate_series(1,100); ERROR: schema's disk space quota exceeded with name:s1
- This command removes the quota from the s1 schema by setting it to
-1 and again inserts a small amount of data. A 5-second sleep before
the INSERT command ensures that the diskquota table size
data is updated before the command is
=# SELECT diskquota.set_schema_quota('s1', '-1'); set_schema_quota ------------------ (1 row) # Wait for 5 seconds to ensure the blacklist is updated #= SELECT pg_sleep(5); #= INSERT INTO a SELECT generate_series(1,100); INSERT 0 100