CREATE TABLE AS

CREATE TABLE AS

Defines a new table from the results of a query.

Synopsis

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } | UNLOGGED ] TABLE table_name
        [ (column_name [, ...] ) ]
        [ WITH ( storage_parameter [= value] [, ... ] ) | WITHOUT OIDS ]
        [ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]
        [ TABLESPACE tablespace_name ]
        AS query
        [ WITH [ NO ] DATA ]
        [ DISTRIBUTED BY (column [, ... ] ) | DISTRIBUTED RANDOMLY | DISTRIBUTED REPLICATED ]
      

where storage_parameter is:

   appendoptimized={TRUE|FALSE}
   blocksize={8192-2097152}
   orientation={COLUMN|ROW}
   compresstype={ZLIB|ZSTD|QUICKLZ}
   compresslevel={1-19 | 1}
   fillfactor={10-100}
   [oids=FALSE]

Description

CREATE TABLE AS creates a table and fills it with data computed by a SELECT command. The table columns have the names and data types associated with the output columns of the SELECT, however you can override the column names by giving an explicit list of new column names.

CREATE TABLE AS creates a new table and evaluates the query just once to fill the new table initially. The new table will not track subsequent changes to the source tables of the query.

Parameters

GLOBAL | LOCAL
Ignored for compatibility. These keywords are deprecated; refer to CREATE TABLE for details.
TEMPORARY | TEMP
If specified, the new table is created as a temporary table. Temporary tables are automatically dropped at the end of a session, or optionally at the end of the current transaction (see ON COMMIT). Existing permanent tables with the same name are not visible to the current session while the temporary table exists, unless they are referenced with schema-qualified names. Any indexes created on a temporary table are automatically temporary as well.
UNLOGGED
If specified, the table is created as an unlogged table. Data written to unlogged tables is not written to the write-ahead (WAL) log, which makes them considerably faster than ordinary tables. However, the contents of an unlogged table are not replicated to mirror segment instances. Also an unlogged table is not crash-safe. After a segment instance crash or unclean shutdown, the data for the unlogged table on that segment is truncated. Any indexes created on an unlogged table are automatically unlogged as well.
table_name
The name (optionally schema-qualified) of the new table to be created.
column_name
The name of a column in the new table. If column names are not provided, they are taken from the output column names of the query.
WITH ( storage_parameter=value )
The WITH clause can be used to set storage options for the table or its indexes. Note that you can also set different storage parameters on a particular partition or subpartition by declaring the WITH clause in the partition specification. The following storage options are available:
appendoptimized — Set to TRUE to create the table as an append-optimized table. If FALSE or not declared, the table will be created as a regular heap-storage table.
blocksize — Set to the size, in bytes for each block in a table. The blocksize must be between 8192 and 2097152 bytes, and be a multiple of 8192. The default is 32768.
orientation — Set to column for column-oriented storage, or row (the default) for row-oriented storage. This option is only valid if appendoptimized=TRUE. Heap-storage tables can only be row-oriented.
compresstype — Set to ZLIB (the default), ZSTD, or QUICKLZ1 to specify the type of compression used. The value NONE disables compression. Zstd provides for both speed or a good compression ratio, tunable with the compresslevel option. QuickLZ and zlib are provided for backwards-compatibility. Zstd outperforms these compression types on usual workloads. The compresstype option is valid only if appendoptimized=TRUE.
Note: 1QuickLZ compression is available only in the commercial release of Pivotal Greenplum Database.
compresslevel — For Zstd compression of append-optimized tables, set to an integer value from 1 (fastest compression) to 19 (highest compression ratio). For zlib compression, the valid range is from 1 to 9. QuickLZ compression level can only be set to 1. If not declared, the default is 1. The compresslevel option is valid only if appendoptimized=TRUE.
fillfactor — See CREATE INDEX for more information about this index storage parameter.
oids=FALSE — This setting is the default, and it ensures that rows do not have object identifiers assigned to them. Pivotal does not support using WITH OIDS or oids=TRUE to assign an OID system column. On large tables, such as those in a typical Greenplum Database system, using OIDs for table rows can cause wrap-around of the 32-bit OID counter. Once the counter wraps around, OIDs can no longer be assumed to be unique, which not only makes them useless to user applications, but can also cause problems in the Greenplum Database system catalog tables. In addition, excluding OIDs from a table reduces the space required to store the table on disk by 4 bytes per row, slightly improving performance. You cannot create OIDS on a partitioned or column-oriented table (an error is displayed). This syntax is deprecated and will be removed in a future Greenplum release.
ON COMMIT
The behavior of temporary tables at the end of a transaction block can be controlled using ON COMMIT. The three options are:
PRESERVE ROWS — No special action is taken at the ends of transactions for temporary tables. This is the default behavior.
DELETE ROWS — All rows in the temporary table will be deleted at the end of each transaction block. Essentially, an automatic TRUNCATE is done at each commit.
DROP — The temporary table will be dropped at the end of the current transaction block.
TABLESPACE tablespace_name
The tablespace_name parameter is the name of the tablespace in which the new table is to be created. If not specified, the database's default tablespace is used, or temp_tablespaces if the table is temporary.
AS query
A SELECT, TABLE, or VALUES command, or an EXECUTE command that runs a prepared SELECT or VALUES query.
DISTRIBUTED BY ({column [opclass]}, [ ... ] )
DISTRIBUTED RANDOMLY
DISTRIBUTED REPLICATED
Used to declare the Greenplum Database distribution policy for the table. DISTRIBUTED BY uses hash distribution with one or more columns declared as the distribution key. For the most even data distribution, the distribution key should be the primary key of the table or a unique column (or set of columns). If that is not possible, then you may choose DISTRIBUTED RANDOMLY, which will send the data round-robin to the segment instances.
DISTRIBUTED REPLICATED replicates all rows in the table to all Greenplum Database segments. It cannot be used with partitioned tables or with tables that inhert from other tables.
The Greenplum Database server configuration parameter gp_create_table_random_default_distribution controls the default table distribution policy if the DISTRIBUTED BY clause is not specified when you create a table. Greenplum Database follows these rules to create a table if a distribution policy is not specified.
  • If the Postgres Planner creates the table, and the value of the parameter is off, the table distribution policy is determined based on the command.
  • If the Postgres Planner creates the table, and the value of the parameter is on, the table distribution policy is random.
  • If GPORCA creates the table, the table distribution policy is random. The parameter value has no effect.
For more information about setting the default table distribution policy, see gp_create_table_random_default_distribution. For information about the Postgres Planner and GPORCA, see Querying Data in the Greenplum Database Administrator Guide.

Notes

This command is functionally similar to SELECT INTO, but it is preferred since it is less likely to be confused with other uses of the SELECT INTO syntax. Furthermore, CREATE TABLE AS offers a superset of the functionality offered by SELECT INTO.

CREATE TABLE AS can be used for fast data loading from external table data sources. See CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE.

Examples

Create a new table films_recent consisting of only recent entries from the table films:

CREATE TABLE films_recent AS SELECT * FROM films WHERE 
date_prod >= '2007-01-01';

Create a new temporary table films_recent, consisting of only recent entries from the table films, using a prepared statement. The new table will be dropped at commit:

PREPARE recentfilms(date) AS SELECT * FROM films WHERE 
date_prod > $1;
CREATE TEMP TABLE films_recent ON COMMIT DROP AS 
EXECUTE recentfilms('2007-01-01');

Compatibility

CREATE TABLE AS conforms to the SQL standard, with the following exceptions:

  • The standard requires parentheses around the subquery clause; in Greenplum Database, these parentheses are optional.
  • The standard defines a WITH [NO] DATA clause; this is not currently implemented by Greenplum Database. The behavior provided by Greenplum Database is equivalent to the standard's WITH DATA case. WITH NO DATA can be simulated by appending LIMIT 0 to the query.
  • Greenplum Database handles temporary tables differently from the standard; see CREATE TABLE for details.
  • The WITH clause is a Greenplum Database extension; neither storage parameters nor OIDs are in the standard. The syntax for creating OID system columns is deprecated and will be removed in a future Greenplum release.
  • The Greenplum Database concept of tablespaces is not part of the standard. The TABLESPACE clause is an extension.