citext Data Type
citext Data Type
The citext module provides a case-insensitive character string type, citext. Essentially, it internally calls the lower function when comparing values. Otherwise, it behaves almost exactly like the text data type.
The standard method to perform case-insensitive matches on text values is to use the lower function when comparing values, for example
SELECT * FROM tab WHERE lower(col) = LOWER(?);
This method works well, but has drawbacks:
- It makes your SQL statements verbose, and you must remember to use lower on both the column and the query value.
- It does not work with an index, unless you create a functional index using lower.
The citext data type allows you to eliminate calls to lower in SQL queries and you can create case-insensitive indexes on columns of type citext. citext is locale-aware, like the text type, which means comparing uppercase and lowercase characters depends on the rules of the LC_CTYPE locale setting. This behavior is the same as using lower in queries, but it is done transparently by the data type, so you do not have to do anything special in your queries.
Before you can use the citext data type, run the installation script $GPHOME/share/postgresql/contrib/citext.sql in each database where you want to use the type:
$ psql -d testdb -f $GPHOME/share/postgresql/contrib/citext.sql
Using the citext Type
Here is a simple example defining a citext table column:
CREATE TABLE users ( id bigint PRIMARY KEY, nick CITEXT NOT NULL, pass TEXT NOT NULL ) DISTRIBUTED BY (id); INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'larry', md5(random()::text) ); INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'Tom', md5(random()::text) ); INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'Damian', md5(random()::text) ); INSERT INTO users VALUES (4, 'NEAL', md5(random()::text) ); INSERT INTO users VALUES (5, 'Bjørn', md5(random()::text) ); SELECT * FROM users WHERE nick = 'Larry';
The SELECT statement returns one tuple, even though the nick column is set to larry and the query specified Larry.
String Comparison Behavior
citext performs comparisons by converting each string to lower case (as though the lower function were called) and then comparing the results normally. Two strings are considered equal if lower would produce identical results for them.
In order to emulate a case-insensitive collation as closely as possible, there are citext-specific versions of a number of string-processing operators and functions. So, for example, the regular expression operators ~ and ~* exhibit the same behavior when applied to citext: they both match case-insensitively. The same is true for !~ and !~*, as well as for the LIKE operators ~~ and ~~*, and !~~ and !~~*. If you want to match case-sensitively, you can cast the operator's arguments to text.
The following functions perform matching case-insensitively if their arguments are citext:
For the regexp functions, if you want to match case-sensitively, you can specify the “c” flag to force a case-sensitive match. If you want case-sensitive behavior, you must cast to text before using one of these functions.
- A column of type citext cannot be part of a primary key or distribution key in a CREATE TABLE statement.
The citext type's case-folding behavior depends on the LC_CTYPE setting of your database. How it compares values is therefore determined when the database is created. It is not truly case-insensitive in the terms defined by the Unicode standard. Effectively, what this means is that, as long as you're happy with your collation, you should be happy with citext's comparisons. But if you have data in different languages stored in your database, users of one language may find their query results are not as expected if the collation is for another language.
- citext is not as efficient as text because the operator functions and the B-tree comparison functions must make copies of the data and convert them to lower case for comparisons. It is, however, slightly more efficient than using lower to perform case-insensitive matching.
- citext may not be the best option if you need data to compare case-sensitively in some contexts and case-insensitively in other contexts. The standard recommendation is to use the text type and manually apply the lower function when you need to compare case-insensitively. This works if case-insensitive comparison is needed only infrequently. If you need case-insensitive behavior most of the time and case-sensitive infrequently, consider storing the data as citext and explicitly casting the column to text when you want case-sensitive comparison. In either situation, you will need two indexes if you want both types of searches to be fast.
- The schema containing the citext operators must be in the current search_path (typically public); if it is not, the normal case-sensitive text operators will be invoked instead.