Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 Release Notes

Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 Release Notes

Welcome to Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1

Pivotal Greenplum Database is a massively parallel processing (MPP) database server that supports next generation data warehousing and large-scale analytics processing. By automatically partitioning data and running parallel queries, it allows a cluster of servers to operate as a single database supercomputer performing tens or hundreds times faster than a traditional database. It supports SQL, MapReduce parallel processing, and data volumes ranging from hundreds of gigabytes, to hundreds of terabytes.

This document contains pertinent release information about Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.8.1. For previous versions of the release notes for Greenplum Database, go to Pivotal Greenplum Database Documentation. For information about Greenplum Database end of life, see Pivotal Greenplum Database end of life policy.

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x software is available for download from the Pivotal Greenplum page on Pivotal Network.

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is based on the open source Greenplum Database project code.

Important: Pivotal Support does not provide support for open source versions of Greenplum Database. Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported by Pivotal Support.

Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 is a minor release that adds and changes several features and resolves some issues.

Important: This patch release resolves a timezone issue, and the documentation clarifies Greenplum Database behavior in selecting a timezone to use when no specific timezone is configured. Pivotal recommends that all customers configure a fixed timezone value that is compatible with Greenplum Database and their host system. This prevents Greenplum Database from recalculating a “best match” timezone each time the cluster is restarted. If you have not configured a timezone value, after you upgrade to this release please verify that the selected timezone is acceptable for your deployment. See Configuring Timezone and Localization Settings for more information.

Experimental Features

Because Pivotal Greenplum Database is based on the open source Greenplum Database project code, it includes several experimental features to allow interested developers to experiment with their use on development systems. Feedback will help drive development of these features, and they may become supported in future versions of the product.

Warning: Experimental features are not recommended or supported for production deployments. These features may change in or be removed from future versions of the product based on further testing and feedback. Moreover, any features that may be visible in the open source code but that are not described in the product documentation should be considered experimental and unsupported for production use.
Greenplum Database 5.8.1 includes these experimental features:
  • The storage plugin for gpbackup and gprestore.
    • The S3 storage plugin. You can specify the --plugin-config option to store a backup on an Amazon Web Services S3 location, and restore the data from the S3 location. See S3 Storage Plugin for gpbackup and gprestore.
    • Storage plugin framework API. Partners, customers, and OSS developers can develop plugins to use in conjunction with gpbackup and gprestore. See Backup/Restore Storage Plugin API.
  • Integration with the Pivotal Greenplum-Informatica Connector (experimental). The connector supports high speed data transfer from an Informatica PowerCenter cluster to a Pivotal Greenplum Database cluster for batch and streaming ETL operations. See the Pivotal Greenplum-Informatica Connector (Experimental) Documentation.
  • Recursive WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions). See WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions).
  • Resource groups remain an experimental feature only on the SuSE 11 platform, due to limited cgroups functionality in the kernel.

    SuSE 12 resolves the Linux cgroup issues that caused the performance degradation when Greenplum Database resource groups are enabled.

Differences Compared to Open Source Greenplum Database

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x includes all of the functionality in the open source Greenplum Database project and adds:
  • Product packaging and installation script.
  • Support for QuickLZ compression. QuickLZ compression is not provided in the open source version of Greenplum Database due to licensing restrictions.
  • Support for managing Greenplum Database using Pivotal Greenplum Command Center.
  • Support for full text search and text analysis using Pivotal GPText.
  • Spark Connector and Gemfire Connector
  • Data Direct ODBC/JDBC Drivers

Supported Platforms

Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 runs on the following platforms:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 64-bit 7.x (See the following Note)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 64-bit 6.x
  • SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 64-bit 12 SP2 and SP3 with kernel version greater than 4.4.73-5. (See the following Note)
  • SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 64-bit 11 SP4 (See the following Note)
  • CentOS 64-bit 7.x
  • CentOS 64-bit 6.x
Note: For the supported Linux operating systems, Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported on system hosts using either AMD or Intel CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. Pivotal recommends using a homogeneous set of hardware (system hosts) in a Greenplum Database system.
Important: Significant Greenplum Database performance degradation has been observed when enabling resource group-based workload management on Red Hat 6.x, CentOS 6.x, and SuSE 11 systems. This issue is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug. This kernel bug has been fixed in CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

If you use Red Hat 6 and the performance with resource groups is acceptable for your use case, upgrade your kernel to version 2.6.32-696 or higher to benefit from other fixes to the cgroups implementation.

SuSE 11 does not have a kernel version that resolves this issue; resource groups are still considered to be an experimental feature on this platform. Resource groups are not supported on SuSE 11 for production use. See known issue 149789783.

Pivotal Greenplum on SuSE 12 supports resource groups for production use. SuSE 12 resolves the Linux cgroup kernel issues that caused the performance degradation when Greenplum Database resource groups are enabled.

Note: For Greenplum Database that is installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.x or CentOS 7.x prior to 7.3, an operating system issue might cause Greenplum Database that is running large workloads to hang in the workload. The Greenplum Database issue is caused by Linux kernel bugs.

RHEL 7.3 and CentOS 7.3 resolves the issue.

Note: Greenplum Database on SuSE Linux Enterprise systems does not support these features.
  • The PL/Perl procedural language
  • The gpmapreduce tool
  • The PL/Container language extension
  • The Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF)
Greenplum Database support on Dell EMC DCA.
  • Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.8.1 is supported on DCA systems that are running DCA software version 3.4 or greater.
  • Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported on DCA systems. Open source versions of Greenplum Database are not supported.
  • FIPS is supported on DCA software version 3.4 and greater with Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.2.0 and greater.
Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 supports these Java versions:
  • 8.xxx
  • 7.xxx

Greenplum Database 5.8.1 software that runs on Linux systems uses OpenSSL 1.0.2l (with FIPS 2.0.16), cURL 7.54, OpenLDAP 2.4.44, and Python 2.7.12.

Greenplum Database client software that runs on Windows and AIX systems uses OpenSSL 0.9.8zg.

The Greenplum Database s3 external table protocol supports these data sources:

Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 supports Data Domain Boost on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

This table lists the versions of Data Domain Boost SDK and DDOS supported by Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Table 1. Data Domain Boost Compatibility
Pivotal Greenplum Data Domain Boost2 DDOS
5.8.1

5.8.0

5.7.0

5.4.1

5.4.0

5.2.0

5.1.0

5.0.0

3.3

3.0.0.31

6.1 (all versions)

6.0 (all versions)

Note: In addition to the DDOS versions listed in the previous table, Pivotal Greenplum 5.0.0 and later supports all minor patch releases (fourth digit releases) later than the certified version.

1Support for Data Domain Boost 3.0.0.3 is deprecated. The DELL EMC end of Primary Support date is December 31, 2017.

2The Greenplum Database utilities gpbackup and gprestore support Data Domain DD Boost File System Plug-In (BoostFS) v1.1 with DDOS 6.0 or greater. Data Domain Boost is not supported.

Note: Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 does not support the ODBC driver for Cognos Analytics V11.

Connecting to IBM Cognos software with an ODBC driver is not supported. Greenplum Database supports connecting to IBM Cognos software with the DataDirect JDBC driver for Pivotal Greenplum. This driver is available as a download from Pivotal Network.

Veritas NetBackup

Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 supports backup with Veritas NetBackup version 7.7.3. See Backing Up Databases with Veritas NetBackup.

Supported Platform Notes

The following notes describe platform support for Pivotal Greenplum. Please send any questions or comments to Pivotal Support at https://support.pivotal.io.

  • The only file system supported for running Greenplum Database is the XFS file system. All other file systems are explicitly not supported by Pivotal.
  • Greenplum Database is supported on all 1U and 2U commodity servers with local storage. Special purpose hardware that is not commodity may be supported at the full discretion of Pivotal Product Management based on the general similarity of the hardware to commodity servers.
  • Greenplum Database is supported on network or shared storage if the shared storage is presented as a block device to the servers running Greenplum Database and the XFS file system is mounted on the block device. Network file systems are not supported. When using network or shared storage, Greenplum Database mirroring must be used in the same way as with local storage, and no modifications may be made to the mirroring scheme or the recovery scheme of the segments. Other features of the shared storage such as de-duplication and/or replication are not directly supported by Pivotal Greenplum Database, but may be used with support of the storage vendor as long as they do not interfere with the expected operation of Greenplum Database at the discretion of Pivotal.
  • Greenplum Database is supported when running on virtualized systems, as long as the storage is presented as block devices and the XFS file system is mounted for the storage of the segment directories.
  • A minimum of 10-gigabit network is required for a system configuration to be supported by Pivotal.
  • Greenplum Database is supported on Amazon Web Services (AWS) servers using either Amazon instance store (Amazon uses the volume names ephemeral[0-20]) or Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) storage. If using Amazon EBS storage the storage should be RAID of Amazon EBS volumes and mounted with the XFS file system for it to be a supported configuration.
  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2 or CentOS 7.2, the default systemd setting RemoveIPC=yes removes IPC connections when non-system users logout. This causes the Greenplum Database utility gpinitsystem to fail with semaphore errors. To avoid this issue, see "Setting the Greenplum Recommended OS Parameters" in the Greenplum Database Installation Guide.

Pivotal Greenplum Tools and Extensions Compatibility

Client Tools

Greenplum releases a number of client tool packages on various platforms that can be used to connect to Greenplum Database and the Greenplum Command Center management tool. The following table describes the compatibility of these packages with this Greenplum Database release.

Tool packages are available from Pivotal Network.

Table 2. Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 Tools Compatibility
Tool Description of Contents Tool Version(s) Server Version(s)
Pivotal Greenplum Clients Greenplum Database Command-Line Interface (psql) 5.8 5.x
Pivotal Greenplum Loaders Greenplum Database Parallel Data Loading Tools (gpfdist, gpload) 5.8 5.x
Pivotal Greenplum Command Center Greenplum Database management tool 4.0.0 5.7.0 and later
3.3.2 5.0.0 and later
3.2.2 5.0.0 - 5.2.x
Pivotal Greenplum Workload Manager1 Greenplum Database query monitoring and management tool 1.8.0 5.0.0

The Greenplum Database Client Tools and Load Tools are supported on the following platforms:

  • AIX 7.2 (64-bit) (Client and Load Tools only)2
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux x86_64 6.x (RHEL 6)
  • SuSE Linux Enterprise Server x86_64 SLES 11 SP4, or SLES 12 SP2/SP3
  • Windows 10 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows 8 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2012 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 (32-bit and 64-bit)
Note: 1For Pivotal Greenplum Command Center 4.0.0 and later, workload management is an integrated Command Center feature rather than the separate tool Pivotal Greenplum Workload Manager.

2For Greenplum Database 5.4.1 and earlier 5.x releases, download the AIX Client and Load Tools package either from the Greenplum Database 5.8.1 file collection or the Greenplum Database 5.0.0 file collection on Pivotal Network.

Extensions

Table 3. Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 Extensions Compatibility
Pivotal Greenplum Extension Versions
MADlib machine learning for Greenplum Database 5.x1, 2 MADlib 1.14
PL/Java for Greenplum Database 5.x PL/Java 1.4.2, 1.4.0
PL/R for Greenplum Database 5.6.x 2.3.2
PostGIS Spatial and Geographic Objects for Greenplum Database 5.x 2.1.5+pivotal.15
Python Data Science Module Package for Greenplum Database 5.x3 1.0.0, 1.1.0
R Data Science Library Package for Greenplum Database 5.x4 1.0.0
PL/Container for Greenplum Database 5.x 1.16, 1.27
Note: 1For information about MADlib support and upgrade information, see the MADlib FAQ. For information on installing the MADlib extension in Greenplum Database, see Greenplum MADlib Extension for Analytics.

2Before upgrading to MADlib 1.13, you must remove some leftover knn functions. For information on upgrading MADlib, see Greenplum MADlib Extension for Analytics.

3For information about the Python package, including the modules provided, see the Python Data Science Module Package.

4For information about the R package, including the libraries provided, see the R Data Science Library Package.

5The PostGIS extension package version 2.1.5+pivotal.1 is compatible only with Greenplum Database 5.5.0 and later.

6To upgrade from PL/Container 1.0 to PL/Container 1.1 and later, you must drop the PL/Container 1.0 language before registering the new version of PL/Container. For information on upgrading the PL/Container extension in Greenplum Database, see PL/Container Language Extension.

7PL/Container version 1.2 can utilize the new resource group capabilities introduced in Greenplum Database 5.8.1. If you downgrade to a Greenplum Database system that uses PL/Container 1.1 or earlier, you must use plcontainer runtime-edit to remove any resource_group_id settings from the PL/Container runtime configuration file. See Upgrading from PL/Container 1.1.

These Greenplum Database extensions are installed with Pivotal Greenplum Database
  • Fuzzy String Match Extension
  • PL/Python Extension
  • pgcrypto Extension

Pivotal Greenplum Data Connectors

  • Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF) - PXF, integrated with Greenplum Database 5.8.1, provides access to HDFS, Hive, and HBase external data stores. Refer to Accessing External Data with PXF in the Greenplum Database Administrator Guide for PXF configuration and usage information.
    Note: PXF is available only for supported Red Hat and CentOS platforms. PXF is not available for supported SuSE platforms.
  • Greenplum-Spark Connector - The Pivotal Greenplum-Spark Connector supports high speed, parallel data transfer from Greenplum Database to an Apache Spark cluster. The Greenplum-Spark Connector is available as a separate download from Pivotal Network. Refer to the Greenplum-Spark Connector documentation for compatibility and usage information.
  • Gemfire-Greenplum Connector - The Pivotal Gemfire-Greenplum Connector supports the transfer of data between a GemFire region and a Greenplum Database cluster. The Gemfire-Greenplum Connector is available as a separate download from Pivotal Network. Refer to the Gemfire-Greenplum Connector documentation for compatibility and usage information.

Pivotal GPText Compatibility

Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.8.1 is compatible with Pivotal GPText version 2.1.3 and later.

Pivotal Greenplum Command Center

See the Greenplum Command Center documentation for GPCC and Greenplum Workload Manager compatibility information, see the Pivotal Greenplum Command Center 3.x and 2.x Release Notes.
Note: For Pivotal Greenplum Command Center 4.0.0 and later, workload management is an integrated Command Center feature rather than the separate tool Pivotal Greenplum Workload Manager.

Hadoop Distribution Compatibility

Greenplum Database provides access to HDFS with gphdfs and the Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF).

PXF Hadoop Distribution Compatibility

PXF supports Cloudera, Hortonworks Data Platform, and generic Apache Hadoop distributions.

If you plan to access JSON format data stored in a Cloudera Hadoop cluster, PXF requires a Cloudera version 5.8 or later Hadoop distribution.

gphdfs Hadoop Distribution Compatibility

The supported Hadoop distributions for gphdfs are listed below:

Table 4. Supported gphdfs Hadoop Distributions
Hadoop Distribution Version gp_hadoop_ target_version
Cloudera CDH 5.x cdh
Hortonworks Data Platform HDP 2.x hdp
MapR MapR 4.x, MapR 5.x mpr
Apache Hadoop 2.x hadoop
Note: MapR requires the MapR client.

Upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.8.1

The upgrade path supported for this release is Greenplum Database 5.x to Greenplum Database 5.8.1. Upgrading a Greenplum Database 4.3.x release to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is not supported. See Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Note: If you are upgrading Greenplum Database on a DCA system, see Pivotal Greenplum on DCA Systems.

Prerequisites

Before starting the upgrade process, Pivotal recommends performing the following checks.

  • Verify the health of the Greenplum Database host hardware, and that you verify that the hosts meet the requirements for running Greenplum Database. The Greenplum Database gpcheckperf utility can assist you in confirming the host requirements.
    Note: If you need to run the gpcheckcat utility, Pivotal recommends running it a few weeks before the upgrade and that you run gpcheckcat during a maintenance period. If necessary, you can resolve any issues found by the utility before the scheduled upgrade.

    The utility is in $GPHOME/bin. Pivotal recommends that Greenplum Database be in restricted mode when you run gpcheckcat utility. See the Greenplum Database Utility Guide for information about the gpcheckcat utility.

    If gpcheckcat reports catalog inconsistencies, you can run gpcheckcat with the -g option to generate SQL scripts to fix the inconsistencies.

    After you run the SQL scripts, run gpcheckcat again. You might need to repeat the process of running gpcheckcat and creating SQL scripts to ensure that there are no inconsistencies. Pivotal recommends that the SQL scripts generated by gpcheckcat be run on a quiescent system. The utility might report false alerts if there is activity on the system.

    Important: If the gpcheckcat utility reports errors, but does not generate a SQL script to fix the errors, contact Pivotal support. Information for contacting Pivotal Support is at https://support.pivotal.io.
  • During the migration process from Greenplum Database 5.0.0, a backup is made of some files and directories in $MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY. Pivotal recommends that files and directories that are not used by Greenplum Database be backed up, if necessary, and removed from the $MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY before migration. For information about the Greenplum Database migration utilities, see the Greenplum Database Documentation.

For information about supported versions of Greenplum Database extensions, see Pivotal Greenplum Tools and Extensions Compatibility.

If you are utilizing Data Domain Boost, you have to re-enter your DD Boost credentials after upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.8.1 as follows:

gpcrondump --ddboost-host ddboost_hostname --ddboost-user ddboost_user
  --ddboost-backupdir backup_directory
Note: If you do not reenter your login credentials after an upgrade, your backup will never start because the Greenplum Database cannot connect to the Data Domain system. You will receive an error advising you to check your login credentials.

If you have configured the Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF) in your previous Greenplum Database installation, you must stop the PXF service and back up PXF configuration files before upgrading to a new version of Greenplum Database. Refer to PXF Pre-Upgrade Actions for instructions.

If you do not plan to use PXF, or you have not yet configured PXF, no action is necessary.

Upgrading from 5.x to 5.8.1

An upgrade from 5.x to 5.8.1 involves stopping Greenplum Database, updating the Greenplum Database software binaries, upgrading and restarting Greenplum Database. If you are using Greenplum Database extension packages there are additional requirements. See Prerequisites in the previous section.

Note: If you have databases that were created with Greenplum Database 5.3.0 or an earlier 5.x release, upgrade the gp_bloat_diagfunction and view in the gp_toolkit schema. For information about the issue and how check a database for the issue, see Update for gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag Issue.
Note: If the Greenplum Command Center database gpperfmon is installed in your Greenplum Database system, the migration process changes the distribution key of the Greenplum Database log_alert_* tables to the logtime column. The redistribution of the table data might take some time the first time you start Greenplum Database after migration. The change occurs only the first time you start Greenplum Database after a migration.
  1. Log in to your Greenplum Database master host as the Greenplum administrative user:
    $ su - gpadmin
  2. Perform a smart shutdown of your current Greenplum Database 5.x system (there can be no active connections to the database). This example uses the -a option to disable confirmation prompts:
    $ gpstop -a
  3. Run the binary installer for 5.8.1 on the Greenplum Database master host.
    When prompted, choose an installation location in the same base directory as your current installation. For example:
    /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.8.1

    If you install Greenplum Database with the rpm (as root), the installation directory is /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.8.1.

    For the rpm installation, update the permissions for the new installation. For example, run this command as root to change user and group of the installed files to gpadmin.

    # chown -R gpadmin:gpadmin /usr/local/greenplum*
  4. If your Greenplum Database deployment uses LDAP authentication, manually edit the /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh file to add the line:
    export LDAPCONF=/etc/openldap/ldap.conf
  5. Edit the environment of the Greenplum Database superuser (gpadmin) and make sure you are sourcing the greenplum_path.sh file for the new installation. For example change the following line in .bashrc or your chosen profile file:
    source /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.0.0/greenplum_path.sh

    to:

    source /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.8.1/greenplum_path.sh

    Or if you are sourcing a symbolic link (/usr/local/greenplum-db) in your profile files, update the link to point to the newly installed version. For example:

    $ rm /usr/local/greenplum-db
    $ ln -s /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.8.1 /usr/local/greenplum-db
  6. Source the environment file you just edited. For example:
    $ source ~/.bashrc
  7. Run the gpseginstall utility to install the 5.8.1 binaries on all the segment hosts specified in the hostfile. For example:
    $ gpseginstall -f hostfile
  8. Use the Greenplum Database gppkg utility to install Greenplum Database extensions. If you were previously using any Greenplum Database extensions such as pgcrypto, PL/R, PL/Java, PL/Perl, and PostGIS, download the corresponding packages from Pivotal Network, and install using this utility. See the Greenplum Database Documentation for gppkg usage details.
  9. After all segment hosts have been upgraded, you can log in as the gpadmin user and restart your Greenplum Database system:
    # su - gpadmin
    $ gpstart
  10. If you are utilizing Data Domain Boost, you have to re-enter your DD Boost credentials after upgrading from Greenplum Database to 5.8.1 as follows:
    gpcrondump --ddboost-host ddboost_hostname --ddboost-user ddboost_user
      --ddboost-backupdir backup_directory
    Note: If you do not reenter your login credentials after an upgrade, your backup will never start because the Greenplum Database cannot connect to the Data Domain system. You will receive an error advising you to check your login credentials.
  11. If you configured PXF in your previous Greenplum Database installation, you must re-initialize the PXF service after you upgrade Greenplum Database. Refer to Upgrading PXF for instructions.

Troubleshooting a Failed Upgrade

If you experience issues during the migration process and have active entitlements for Greenplum Database that were purchased through Pivotal, contact Pivotal Support. Information for contacting Pivotal Support is at https://support.pivotal.io.

Be prepared to provide the following information:

  • A completed Upgrade Procedure.
  • Log output from gpcheckcat (located in ~/gpAdminLogs)

Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x

Upgrading a Pivotal Greenplum Database 4.x system directly to Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.x is not supported.

You can migrate existing data to Greenplum Database 5.x using standard backup and restore procedures (gpcrondump and gpdbrestore) or by using gptransfer if both clusters will run side-by-side.

Follow these general guidelines for migrating data:
  • Make sure that you have a complete backup of all data in the Greenplum Database 4.3.x cluster, and that you can successfully restore the Greenplum Database 4.3.x cluster if necessary.
  • You must install and initialize a new Greenplum Database 5.x cluster using the version 5.x gpinitsystem utility.
    Note: Unless you modify file locations manually, gpdbrestore only supports restoring data to a cluster that has an identical number of hosts and an identical number of segments per host, with each segment having the same content_id as the segment in the original cluster. If you initialize the Greenplum Database 5.x cluster using a configuration that is different from the version 4.3 cluster, then follow the steps outlined in Restoring to a Different Greenplum System Configuration to manually update the file locations.
  • If you intend to install Greenplum Database 5.x on the same hardware as your 4.3.x system, you will need enough disk space to accommodate over 5 times the original data set (2 full copies of the primary and mirror data sets, plus the original backup data in ASCII format). Keep in mind that the ASCII backup data will require more disk space than the original data, which may be stored in compressed binary format. Offline backup solutions such as Dell EMC Data Domain or Veritas NetBackup can reduce the required disk space on each host.
  • Use the version 5.x gpdbrestore utility to load the 4.3.x backup data into the new cluster.
  • If the Greenplum Database 5.x cluster resides on separate hardware from the 4.3.x cluster, you can optionally use the version 5.x gptransfer utility to migrate the 4.3.x data. You must initiate the gptransfer operation from the version 5.x cluster, pulling the older data into the newer system.

    On a Greenplum Database system with FIPS enabled, validating table data with MD5 (specifying the option --validate=md5) is not available. Use the option sha256 to validate table data.

    Validating table data with SHA-256 (specifying the option --validate=sha256) requires the Greenplum Database pgcrypto extension. The extension is included with Pivotal Greenplum 5.x. The extension package must be installed on supported Pivotal Greenplum 4.3.x systems. Support for pgcrypto functions in a Greenplum 4.3.x database is not required.

  • Greenplum Database 5.x removes automatic implicit casts between the text type and other data types. When you migrate from Greenplum Database version 4.3.x to version 5.x, this change in behavior may impact existing applications and queries. Refer to About Implicit Text Casting in Greenplum Database in the Greenplum Database Installation Guide for information, including a discussion about supported and unsupported workarounds.
  • After migrating data you may need to modify SQL scripts, administration scripts, and user-defined functions as necessary to account for changes in Greenplum Database version 5.x. Look for Upgrade Action Required entries in the Pivotal Greenplum 5.0.0 Release Notes for features that may necessitate post-migration tasks.

Pivotal Greenplum on DCA Systems

On supported Dell EMC DCA systems, you can install Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1, or you can upgrade from Pivotal Greenplum 5.x to 5.8.1.

Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported on DCA systems. Open source versions of Greenplum Database are not supported.

Important: Upgrading Pivotal Greenplum Database 4.3.x to Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 is not supported. See Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Installing the Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 Software Binaries on DCA Systems

Important: This section is for installing Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 only on DCA systems. Also, see the information on the DELL EMC support site (requires login).

For information about installing Pivotal Greenplum on non-DCA systems, see the Greenplum Database Installation Guide.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure your DCA system supports Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1. See Supported Platforms.
  • Ensure Greenplum Database 4.3.x is not installed on your system.

    Installing Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 on a DCA system with an existing Greenplum Database 4.3.x installation is not supported. For information about uninstalling Greenplum Database software, see your Dell EMC DCA documentation.

Installing Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1

  1. Download or copy the Greenplum Database DCA installer file greenplum-db-appliance-5.8.1-RHEL6-x86_64.bin to the Greenplum Database master host.
  2. As root, run the DCA installer for 5.8.1 on the Greenplum Database master host and specify the file hostfile that lists all hosts in the cluster, one host name per line. If necessary, copy hostfile to the directory containing the installer before running the installer.

    This example command runs the installer for Greenplum Database 5.8.1.

    # ./greenplum-db-appliance-5.8.1-RHEL6-x86_64.bin hostfile

Upgrading from 5.x to 5.8.1 on DCA Systems

Upgrading Pivotal Greenplum from 5.x to 5.8.1 on a Dell EMC DCA system involves stopping Greenplum Database, updating the Greenplum Database software binaries, and restarting Greenplum Database.

Important: This section is only for upgrading to Pivotal Greenplum 5.8.1 on DCA systems. For information about upgrading on non-DCA systems, see Upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.8.1.
Note: If you have databases that were created with Greenplum Database 5.3.0 or an earlier 5.x release, upgrade the gp_bloat_diagfunction and view in the gp_toolkit schema. For information about the issue and how check a database for the issue, see Update for gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag Issue.
  1. Log in to your Greenplum Database master host as the Greenplum administrative user (gpadmin):
    # su - gpadmin
  2. Download or copy the installer file greenplum-db-appliance-5.8.1-RHEL6-x86_64.bin to the Greenplum Database master host.
  3. Perform a smart shutdown of your current Greenplum Database 5.x system (there can be no active connections to the database). This example uses the -a option to disable confirmation prompts:
    $ gpstop -a
  4. As root, run the Greenplum Database DCA installer for 5.8.1 on the Greenplum Database master host and specify the file hostfile that lists all hosts in the cluster. If necessary, copy hostfile to the directory containing the installer before running the installer.

    This example command runs the installer for Greenplum Database 5.8.1 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.x.

    # ./greenplum-db-appliance-5.8.1-RHEL6-x86_64.bin hostfile

    The file hostfile is a text file that lists all hosts in the cluster, one host name per line.

  5. Install Greenplum Database extension packages. For information about installing a Greenplum Database extension package, see gppkg in the Greenplum Database Utility Guide.
  6. After all segment hosts have been upgraded, you can log in as the gpadmin user and restart your Greenplum Database system:
    # su - gpadmin
    $ gpstart
  7. If you are utilizing Data Domain Boost, you have to re-enter your DD Boost credentials after upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.8.1 as follows:
    gpcrondump --ddboost-host ddboost_hostname --ddboost-user ddboost_user
      --ddboost-backupdir backup_directory
Note: If you do not reenter your login credentials after an upgrade, your backup will never start because the Greenplum Database cannot connect to the Data Domain system. You will receive an error advising you to check your login credentials.

Resolved Issues

For issues resolved in prior 5.x releases, refer to the corresponding release notes. Release notes are available from the Pivotal Greenplum page on Pivotal Network or on the Pivotal Greenplum Database documentation site at Release Notes.

5.8.1 Release

The listed issue is resolved in Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.8.1.
29368 - Catalog and Metadata
In some cases during Greenplum Database system initialization, Greenplum Database generated a PANIC due a timezone issue. The timezone used by Greenplum Database is selected from a set of internally stored PostgreSQL timezones. Greenplum Database selects the timezone by matching a PostgreSQL timezone with the user specified time zone, or the host system time zone.
The PANIC was caused when Greenplum Database could not match the host system timezone with an internal PostgreSQL timezone. The PANIC occurred on Dell EMC DCA systems because Greenplum Database could not match the dca_setup utility default timezone that includes leap second information.
This issue has been resolved. Now in the specified situation, Greenplum Database returns a warning and sets the Greenplum Database time zone as GMT with a time offset based on information from the host system.
Note: Greenplum Database cannot correctly match system timezones that include leap second information. You must manually configure the timezone to a compatible setting. See 158011506.

5.8.0 Release

These listed issues are resolved in Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.8.0.

29320 - catalog and metadata
The Greenplum Database timezone was not set correctly. The timzone was set to GMT. Greenplum Database did not use the timezone value in the postgresql.conf, or the operating system timezone if the value is not set in postgresql.conf.
This issue has been resolved. Now the timezone is set correctly.
29319 - Query Planner
For queries that contain a percentile function and are against a partitioned table, the Greenplum Database legacy planner generated a PANIC. The legacy planner did not handle memory properly while generating a multistage aggregate plan and caused a PANIC.
The issue has been resolved. Legacy planner memory management has been improved for the specified type of query.
29316 - gpbackup/ gprestore
The gprestore utility failed when attempting to restore a database when the PL/Java language is installed in the database. The gpbackup utility did not correctly back up the installed PL/Java language.
This issue has been resolved. Now gpbackup correctly backs up the installed PL/Java language.
29301 - gpbackup/ gprestore
In some, cases when restoring tables that own sequences with gprestore utility, the utility returned an error. The gpbackup utility did not correctly backup sequences when backing up a set of tables (including or excluding tables) and some of the tables owned sequences.
This issue has been resolved. Now gpbackup correctly backs up sequences that are owned by tables in the specified situation.
29299 - gpcrondump/ gpdbgrestore
The Greenplum Database gpdbrestore utility failed when restoring a backup from a Data Domain Boost system to a system where the Greenplum Database DBID information has changed. For example, a segment instance failed over to a mirror segment between the backup and restore operation.
This issue has been resolved. The gpdbrestore utility has been enhanced to restore backups from Data Domain Boost system in the specified situation.
29286 - Analyze
A Greenplum Database superuser (gpadmin) could not perform an analyze operation on a table that is owned by a Greenplum Database non-supersuer. This issue was caused by a PostgreSQL 8.4 update that was incorporated into Greenplum Database.
This issue has been resolved. The PostgreSQL 8.4 change has been modified to work with Greenplum Database.
29285 - Query Planner
For queries that contain a FULL JOIN and the join included columns of the type varchar, the query returned an error. The error occurred because Greenplum Database did handle type conversions properly when generating the query plan. This caused the error during query execution.
This issue has been fixed. The handling of type conversions has been improved for the specified type of queries.
29283 - Query Optimizer
GPORCA optimization performance has been improved for queries that contain a predicate that performs a comparison with an constant array with a large number of elements where the array elements are sets of constants.
This issue has been resolved. GPORCA optimization performance has been improved for the specified type of queries.
29275 - Query Optimizer
For some multiple join queries, GPORCA incorrectly disabled the minimum cardinality based join ordering whenever the join associativity threshold was met to improve optimization processing. This caused GPORCA to generate a suboptimal plan for some multiple join queries.
This issue has been resolved. GPORCA has improved join processing for multiple join queries.
29269 - Internationalization
In some cases when the Greenplum Database encoding was different than the client encoding, the client received an invalid byte sequence for encoding when communicating with a database. The incorrect Greenplum Database encoding conversion function was called.
This issue has been resolved. Now the correct function is called.
29259 - gprecoverseg
There were gprecoverseg performance issues when the utility was run to recover large number of Greenplum Database segment instances. Some gprecoverseg tests were performed sequentially on segments.
This issue has been resolved. To improve performance, some tests performed by the utility are now performed on segments instances in parallel.
26529 - Query Optimizer
For GORCA, cardinality for a join that includes a predicate of the form f(a) = b was estimated using a constant scale factor. This estimate resulted in an overestimation of the cardinality, and in some cases, choosing an inferior query plan.
This issue has been resolved. GPORCA has been improved to generate cardinality estimate of the specified type of predicate and results in a better plan being selected.
29206 - Query Planner
For some queries that contained window functions and predicates, legacy query planner created a query plan that did not push the predicate below the window function when appropriate. This caused a performance regression.
This issue has been resolved. The predicate pushdown evaluation performed by query planner has been improved for the specified type of query.
156558904 - GPPC
Applications that used Greenplum Partner Connector (GPPC) library, could not be compiled. GPPC header and make file issues prevented the application from compiling.
This issue has been resolved. The GPPC header and make files have been updated in the Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.8.0 installation files.

Known Issues and Limitations

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x has these limitations:

  • Upgrading a Greenplum Database 4.3.x release to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is not supported. See Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.
  • Some features are works-in-progress and are considered to be experimental features. Pivotal does not support using experimental features in a production environment. See Experimental Features.
  • Greenplum Database 4.3.x packages are not compatible with Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

The following table lists key known issues in Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Table 5. Key Known Issues in Pivotal Greenplum 5.x
Issue Category Description
158011506 Catalog and Metadata In some cases, the timezone used by Greenplum Database might be different than the host system timezone, or the Greenplum Database timezone set by a user. In some rare cases, times used and displayed by Greenplum Database might be slightly different than the host system time.

The timezone used by Greenplum Database is selected from a set of internally stored PostgreSQL timezones. Greenplum Database selects the timezone by matching a PostgreSQL timezone with the user specified time zone, or the host system time zone. For example, when selecting a default timezone, Greenplum Database uses an algorithm to select a PostgreSQL timezones based on the host system timezone. If the system timezone includes leap second information, Greenplum Database cannot match the system timezone with a PostgreSQL timezone. Greenplum Database calculates a best match with a PostgreSQL timezone based on information from the host system.

Workaround: Set the Greenplum Database and host system timezones to a timezone that is supported by both Greenplum Database and the host system. For example, you can show and set the Greenplum Database timezone with the gpconfig utility. These commands show the Greenplum Database timezone and set the timezone to US/Pacific.

# gpconfig -s TimeZone
# gpconfig -c TimeZone -v 'US/Pacific'

You must restart Greenplum Database after changing the timezone. The command gpstop -ra restarts Greenplum Database.

The Greenplum Database catalog view pg_timezone_names provides Greenplum Database timezone information.

26589 Storage: Catalog and Metadata Greenplum Database does not acquire a lock on a schema when creating a table inside the schema. A concurrent DROP of the schema and CREATE TABLE operation will result in a leaked object (an orphan table or orphan relation columns) in the system catalog and possibly on disk. For example, a relation created as
CREATE TABLE foobar (col1 int)

during a concurrent DROP may leak either the table itself or the col1 attribute object.

These leaked objects do not affect any future queries. The catalog inconsistencies can be detected with the gpcheckcat utility.

Workaround: To block a concurrent DROP from occurring, acquire and hold a ROW SHARE lock on the row of the pg_namespace catalog table that corresponds to the schema. For example, this transaction acquires a ROW SHARE lock on the pg_namespace catalog table row for the schema my_schema.

begin;
SELECT nspname FROM pg_namespace WHERE nspname = 'my_schema' FOR SHARE;
  ...

end;

During the transaction, the lock prevents the schema from being dropped.

N/A PXF PXF is available only for supported Red Hat and CentOS platforms. PXF is not available for supported SuSE platforms.
151135629 COPY command When the ON SEGMENT clause is specified, the COPY command does not support specifying a SELECT statement in the COPY TO clause. For example, this command is not supported.
COPY (SELECT * FROM testtbl) TO '/tmp/mytst<SEGID>' ON SEGMENT
29064 Storage: DDL The money data type accepts out-of-range values as negative values, and no error message is displayed.

Workaround: Use only in-range values for the money data type (32-bit for Greenplum Database 4.x, or 64-bit for Greenplum Database 5.x). Or, use an alternative data type such as numeric or decimal.

3290 JSON The to_json() function is not implemented as a callable function. Attempting to call the function results in an error. For example:
tutorial=# select to_json('Fred said "Hi."'::text); 
ERROR: function to_json(text) does not exist
LINE 1: select to_json('Fred said "Hi."'::text);
^
HINT: No function matches the given name and argument types. 
You might need to add explicit type casts.

Workaround: Greenplum Database invokes to_json() internally when casting to the json data type, so perform a cast instead. For example: SELECT '{"foo":"bar"}'::json; Greenplum Database also provides the array_to_json() and row_to_json() functions.

148119917 Resource Groups Testing of the resource groups feature has found that a kernel panic can occur when using the default kernel in RHEL/CentOS system. The problem occurs due to a problem in the kernel cgroups implementation, and results in a kernel panic backtrace similar to:
[81375.325947] BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000010
      [81375.325986] IP: [<ffffffff812f94b1>] rb_next+0x1/0x50 [81375.326014] PGD 0 [81375.326025]
      Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP [81375.326041] Modules linked in: veth ipt_MASQUERADE
      nf_nat_masquerade_ipv4 iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 nf_nat_ipv4 xt_addrtype
      iptable_filter xt_conntrack nf_nat nf_conntrack bridge stp llc intel_powerclamp coretemp
      intel_rapl dm_thin_pool dm_persistent_data dm_bio_prison dm_bufio kvm_intel kvm crc32_pclmul
      ghash_clmulni_intel aesni_intel lrw gf128mul glue_helper ablk_helper cryptd iTCO_wdt
      iTCO_vendor_support ses enclosure ipmi_ssif pcspkr lpc_ich sg sb_edac mfd_core edac_core
      mei_me ipmi_si mei wmi ipmi_msghandler shpchp acpi_power_meter acpi_pad ip_tables xfs
      libcrc32c sd_mod crc_t10dif crct10dif_generic mgag200 syscopyarea sysfillrect crct10dif_pclmul
      sysimgblt crct10dif_common crc32c_intel drm_kms_helper ixgbe ttm mdio ahci igb libahci drm ptp
      pps_core libata dca i2c_algo_bit [81375.326369]  i2c_core megaraid_sas dm_mirror
      dm_region_hash dm_log dm_mod [81375.326396] CPU: 17 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/17 Not tainted
      3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64 #1 [81375.326422] Hardware name: Cisco Systems Inc
      UCSC-C240-M4L/UCSC-C240-M4L, BIOS C240M4.2.0.8b.0.080620151546 08/06/2015 [81375.326459] task:
      ffff88140ecec500 ti: ffff88140ed10000 task.ti: ffff88140ed10000 [81375.326485] RIP:
      0010:[<ffffffff812f94b1>]  [<ffffffff812f94b1>] rb_next+0x1/0x50 [81375.326514] RSP:
      0018:ffff88140ed13e10  EFLAGS: 00010046 [81375.326534] RAX: 0000000000000000 RBX:
      0000000000000000 RCX: 0000000000000000 [81375.326559] RDX: ffff88282f1d4800 RSI:
      ffff88280bc0f140 RDI: 0000000000000010 [81375.326584] RBP: ffff88140ed13e58 R08:
      0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000001 [81375.326609] R10: 0000000000000000 R11:
      0000000000000001 R12: ffff88280b0e7000 [81375.326634] R13: 0000000000000000 R14:
      0000000000000000 R15: 0000000000b6f979 [81375.326659] FS:  0000000000000000(0000)
      GS:ffff88282f1c0000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 [81375.326688] CS:  0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000
      CR0: 0000000080050033 [81375.326708] CR2: 0000000000000010 CR3: 000000000194a000 CR4:
      00000000001407e0 [81375.326733] DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2:
      0000000000000000 [81375.326758] DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7:
      0000000000000400 [81375.326783] Stack: [81375.326792]  ffff88140ed13e58 ffffffff810bf539
      ffff88282f1d4780 ffff88282f1d4780 [81375.326826]  ffff88140ececae8 ffff88282f1d4780
      0000000000000011 ffff88140ed10000 [81375.326861]  0000000000000000 ffff88140ed13eb8
      ffffffff8163a10a ffff88140ecec500 [81375.326895] Call Trace: [81375.326912]
      [<ffffffff810bf539>] ? pick_next_task_fair+0x129/0x1d0 [81375.326940]  [<ffffffff8163a10a>]
      __schedule+0x12a/0x900 [81375.326961]  [<ffffffff8163b9e9>] schedule_preempt_disabled+0x29/0x70
      [81375.326987]  [<ffffffff810d6244>] cpu_startup_entry+0x184/0x290 [81375.327011]
      [<ffffffff810475fa>] start_secondary+0x1ba/0x230 [81375.327032] Code: e5 48 85 c0 75 07 eb 19 66
      90 48 89 d0 48 8b 50 10 48 85 d2 75 f4 48 8b 50 08 48 85 d2 75 eb 5d c3 31 c0 5d c3 0f 1f 44
      00 00 55 <48> 8b 17 48 89 e5 48 39 d7 74 3b 48 8b 47 08 48 85 c0 75 0e eb [81375.327157] RIP
      [<ffffffff812f94b1>] rb_next+0x1/0x50 [81375.327179]  RSP <ffff88140ed13e10> [81375.327192] CR2:
      0000000000000010

Workaround: Upgrade to the latest-available kernel for your Red Hat or CentOS release to avoid the above system panic.

149789783 Resource Groups Significant Pivotal Greenplum performance degradation has been observed when enabling resource group-based workload management on Red Hat 6.x, CentOS 6.x, and SuSE 11 systems. This issue is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug. This kernel bug has been fixed in CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

When resource groups are enabled on systems with an affected kernel, there can be a delay of 1 second or longer when starting a transaction or a query. The delay is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug where a synchronization mechanism called synchronize_sched is abused when a process is attached to a cgroup. See http://www.spinics.net/lists/cgroups/msg05708.html and https://lkml.org/lkml/2013/1/14/97 for more information.

The issue causes single attachment operations to take longer and also causes all concurrent attachments to be executed in sequence. For example, one process attachment could take about 0.01 second. When concurrently attaching 100 processes, the fastest process attachment takes 0.01 second and the slowest takes about 1 second. Pivotal Greenplum performs process attachments when a transaction or queries are started. So the performance degradation is dependent on concurrent started transactions or queries, and not related to concurrent running queries. Also Pivotal Greenplum has optimizations to bypass the rewriting when a QE is reused by multiple queries in the same session.

Workaround: This bug does not affect CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

If you use Red Hat 6 and the performance with resource groups is acceptable for your use case, upgrade your kernel to version 2.6.32-696 or higher to benefit from other fixes to the cgroups implementation.

SuSE 11 does not have a kernel version that resolves this issue; resource groups are still considered to be an experimental feature on this platform. Resource groups are not supported on SuSE 11 for production use.

150906510 Backup and Restore Greenplum Database 4.3.15.0 and later backups contain the following line in the backup files:
SET gp_strict_xml_parse = false;

However, Greenplum Database 5.0.0 does not have a parameter named gp_strict_xml_parse. When you restore the 4.3 backup set to the 5.0.0 cluster, you may see the warning:

[WARNING]:-gpdbrestore finished but ERRORS were found, please check the restore report file for details

Also, the report file may contain the error:

ERROR:  unrecognized configuration parameter "gp_strict_xml_parse"

These warnings and errors do not affect the restoration procedure, and can be ignored.

Update for gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag Issue

In Greenplum Database 5.3.0 or an earlier 5.x release, Greenplum Database returned an integer out of range error in some cases when performing a query against the gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag view. The issue was resolved in Greenplum Database 5.4.0 (resolved issue 26518) .

When updating Greenplum Database, the gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag function and view must be updated in databases created with a Greenplum Database 5.3.0 or an earlier 5.x release. This issue has been fixed in databases created with Greenplum Database 5.4.0 and later.

To check whether the gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag function and view in a database requires an update, run the psql command \df to display information about the gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag function.

\df gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag

If the data type for btdexppages is integer, an update is required. If the data type is numeric an update is not required. In this example, the btdexppages data type is integer and requires an update.

List of functions
-[ RECORD 1 ]-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Schema              | gp_toolkit
Name                | gp_bloat_diag
Result data type    | record
Argument data types | btdrelpages integer, btdexppages integer, aotable boolean, OUT bltidx integer, OUT bltdiag text
Type                | normal

Run the following script to update the function and view to fix the issue on each database that was created with Greenplum Database 5.3.0 or an earlier 5.x release.

As the gpadmin user, follow these steps.

  1. Copy the script into a text file on the Greenplum Database master.
  2. Run the script on each database that requires the update.
    This example updates gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag function and view in the database mytest and assumes that the script is in the update_bloat_diag.sql in the gpadmin home directory.
    psql -f /home/gpadmin/update_bloat_diag.sql -d mytest

Run the script during a low activity period. Running the script during a high activity period does not affect database functionality but might affect performance.

Script to Update gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag Function and View
BEGIN;
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag(btdrelpages int, btdexppages numeric, aotable bool,
    OUT bltidx int, OUT bltdiag text)
AS
$$
    SELECT
        bloatidx,
        CASE
            WHEN bloatidx = 0
                THEN 'no bloat detected'::text
            WHEN bloatidx = 1
                THEN 'moderate amount of bloat suspected'::text
            WHEN bloatidx = 2
                THEN 'significant amount of bloat suspected'::text
            WHEN bloatidx = -1
                THEN 'diagnosis inconclusive or no bloat suspected'::text
        END AS bloatdiag
    FROM
    (
        SELECT
            CASE
                WHEN $3 = 't' THEN 0
                WHEN $1 < 10 AND $2 = 0 THEN -1
                WHEN $2 = 0 THEN 2
                WHEN $1 < $2 THEN 0
                WHEN ($1/$2)::numeric > 10 THEN 2
                WHEN ($1/$2)::numeric > 3 THEN 1
                ELSE -1
            END AS bloatidx
    ) AS bloatmapping

$$
LANGUAGE SQL READS SQL DATA;

GRANT EXECUTE ON FUNCTION gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag(int, numeric, bool, OUT int, OUT text) TO public;

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag
AS
    SELECT
        btdrelid AS bdirelid,
        fnnspname AS bdinspname,
        fnrelname AS bdirelname,
        btdrelpages AS bdirelpages,
        btdexppages AS bdiexppages,
        bltdiag(bd) AS bdidiag
    FROM
    (
        SELECT
            fn.*, beg.*,
            gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag(btdrelpages::int, btdexppages::numeric, iao.iaotype::bool) AS bd
        FROM
            gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_expected_pages beg,
            pg_catalog.pg_class pgc,
            gp_toolkit.__gp_fullname fn,
            gp_toolkit.__gp_is_append_only iao

        WHERE beg.btdrelid = pgc.oid
            AND pgc.oid = fn.fnoid
            AND iao.iaooid = pgc.oid
    ) as bloatsummary
    WHERE bltidx(bd) > 0;

GRANT SELECT ON TABLE gp_toolkit.gp_bloat_diag TO public;
COMMIT;