Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 Release Notes

Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 Release Notes

Updated: December, 2017

Welcome to Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0

Pivotal Greenplum Database is a massively parallel processing (MPP) database server that supports next generation data warehousing and large-scale analytics processing. By automatically partitioning data and running parallel queries, it allows a cluster of servers to operate as a single database supercomputer performing tens or hundreds times faster than a traditional database. It supports SQL, MapReduce parallel processing, and data volumes ranging from hundreds of gigabytes, to hundreds of terabytes.

Note: This document contains pertinent release information about Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.2.0. For previous versions of the release notes for Greenplum Database, go to Pivotal Greenplum Database Documentation. For information about Greenplum Database end of life, see Pivotal Greenplum Database end of life policy.

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x software is available for download from the Pivotal Greenplum page on Pivotal Network.

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is based on the open source Greenplum Database project code.

Important: Pivotal Support does not provide support for open source versions of Greenplum Database. Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported by Pivotal Support.

Greenplum Database 5.2.0 is a minor release that includes product enhancements and changes, and resolves some known issues.

New Features

Partitioned Table Enhancement for External Tables

Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0, supports exchanging a leaf child partition with an external table for a multi-level partition table, a partitioned table that is created with the SUBPARTITION clause or if a partition has a subpartition.

In previous releases, exchanging a leaf child partition with an external table was supported for a partitioned table that was a not multi-level partition table.

For more information about exchanging a leaf child partition with an external table, see Exchanging a Leaf Child Partition with an External Table.

GPORCA Partition Elimination Enhancement

In Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0, GPORCA has improved partition elimination for some queries against partitioned tables. For queries where the predicate contains a constant filter involving a partitioning key and a CAST on both sides (either an explicit or implcit CAST). For example, the predicate for this query against the partitioned table part_tbl performs a CAST on the value 5, which causes a an implicit CAST on the partitioning key id that was defined as an integer.
select * from part_tbl where id=5::int8;

Partition elimination improves query performance for the specified type of query.

In previous releases, GPORCA did not perform partition elimination for the specified type of queries.

analyzedb Utility Enhancement

In Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0, the analzyedb utility supports the --gen_profile_only option that updates the analyzedb snapshot of table statistics information without performing any ANALYZE operations.

While performing ANALYZE operations, analyzedb updates a snapshot of table statistics information and stores the information on master host. The utility checks the snapshot when performing ANALYZE operations and skips tables with up-to-date statistics. You can specify this option if an ANALYZE command was run on database tables and you want update the analyzedb snapshot for the tables.

For more information about the utility, see the analyzedb utility.

Resource Groups

Resource Management with Resource Groups is no longer an experimental feature on supported ReHat and CentOS systems. See Using Resource Groups. The gpcrondump and gpdbrestore utilities now support backing up and restoring resource groups configuration information.
Important: Significant Greenplum Database performance degradation has been observed when enabling resource group-based workload management on RedHat 6.x, CentOS 6.x, and SuSE 11 systems. This issue is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug. This kernel bug has been fixed in CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

If you use RedHat 6 and the performance with resource groups is acceptable for your use case, upgrade your kernel to version 2.6.32-696 or higher to benefit from other fixes to the cgroups implementation.

SuSE 11 does not have a kernel version that resolves this issue; resource groups are still considered to be an experimental feature on this platform. Resource groups are not supported on SuSE 11 for production use. See known issue 149789783.

Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF)

The Greenplum Platform Extension Framework now supports:
  • Reading table data from an external HBase data store.
  • Reading JSON format data from HDFS.
Note: PXF does not currently support filter predicate pushdown in the HDFS, Hive, and HBase connectors.

Dell EMC DCA Support

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is supported on Dell EMC DCA systems that are running DCA software version 3.4 or greater.
Note: Pivotal Greenplum 5.1 and 5.0 are not supported on DCA systems with FIPS enabled.

Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported on DCA systems. Open source versions of Greenplum Database are not supported.

See Pivotal Greenplum on DCA Systems.

passwordcheck Module

Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.2.0 now includes the passwordcheck module, which can be used to reject weak passwords that would be created with CREATE ROLE or ALTER ROLE.

Experimental Features

Because Pivotal Greenplum Database is based on the open source Greenplum Database project code, it includes several experimental features to allow interested developers to experiment with their use on development systems. Feedback will help drive development of these features, and they may become supported in future versions of the product.

Warning: Experimental features are not recommended or supported for production deployments. These features may change in or be removed from future versions of the product based on further testing and feedback. Moreover, any features that may be visible in the open source code but that are not described in the product documentation should be considered experimental and unsupported for production use.
Key experimental features in Greenplum Database 5.2.0 include:
  • gpbackup and gprestore are new utilities that are designed to improve the performance, functionality, and reliability of backups as compared to gpcrondump and gpdbrestore. gpbackup utilizes ACCESS SHARE locks at the individual table level, instead of EXCLUSIVE locks on the pg_class catalog table. This enables you to execute DML statements during the backup, such as CREATE, ALTER, DROP, and TRUNCATE operations, as long as those operations do not target the current backup set.

    Backup files created with gpbackup are designed to provide future capabilities for restoring individual database objects along with their dependencies, such as functions and required user-defined datatypes. See Parallel Backup with gpbackup and gprestore for more information.

    Note: gpbackup and gprestore are not provided with the SuSE Linux Enterprise Server build of Pivotal Greenplum Database.
  • Greenplum PL/Container Extension. Greenplum PL/Container Extension
  • Recursive WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions). See WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions).
  • Resource groups remain an experimental feature only on the SuSE platform, due to limited cgroups functionality in the kernel.
  • Writing text and SequenceFile binary format data to HDFS using the Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF). See Writing Data to HDFS with PXF (Experimental).

Changed Features

Greenplum Database 5.2.0 includes these feature changes:
  • Greenplum Database 5.x supports DDOS 6.1 (all versions).
  • The Client and Loader tools have been updated to resolve an installation issue. See resolved issue 151468673.
  • The Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF) now supports installing Hadoop service (HDFS, Hive, HBase) client packages via RPM file.
  • To use the dblink module functions as a non-superuser, you must now include both a hostname and password in the dblink connection string. In previous versions of Greenplum Database, only the password was required for non-superuser connections. See dblink Functions
  • The pgAdmin 4 tool has been removed as a experimental feature. It is not officially supported by Pivotal.
  • The gpload utility issues the warning if the YAML control file contains the ERROR_TABLE element. The utility issues a warning stating that ERROR_TABLE is not supported the and handles load errors as if the LOG_ERRORS and REUSE_TABLE elements are set to true. Rows with formatting errors are logged internally when running in single row error isolation mode.

    In previous Greenplum 5.x releases, gpload returned an error if the YAML control file contains the ERROR_TABLE element. The ERROR_TABLE element was available in Greenplum Database 4.3.x and was removed in Greenplum 5.x.

Deprecated Features

In Greenplum Database 5.2.0, support for Data Domain Boost 3.0.0.3 is deprecated. The DELL EMC end of Primary Support date is December 31, 2017.

Differences Compared to Open Source Greenplum Database

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x includes all of the functionality in the open source Greenplum Database project and adds:
  • Product packaging and installation script.
  • Support for QuickLZ compression. QuickLZ compression is not provided in the open source version of Greenplum Database due to licensing restrictions.
  • Support for managing Greenplum Database using Pivotal Greenplum Command Center.
  • Support for monitoring and managing queries with Pivotal Greenplum Workload Manager.
  • Support for full text search and text analysis using Pivotal GPText.

Supported Platforms

Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 runs on the following platforms:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 64-bit 7.x (See the following Note)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 64-bit 6.x
  • SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 64-bit 11 SP4 (See the following Note)
  • CentOS 64-bit 7.x
  • CentOS 64-bit 6.x
Important: Significant Greenplum Database performance degradation has been observed when enabling resource group-based workload management on RedHat 6.x, CentOS 6.x, and SuSE 11 systems. This issue is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug. This kernel bug has been fixed in CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

If you use RedHat 6 and the performance with resource groups is acceptable for your use case, upgrade your kernel to version 2.6.32-696 or higher to benefit from other fixes to the cgroups implementation.

SuSE 11 does not have a kernel version that resolves this issue; resource groups are still considered to be an experimental feature on this platform. Resource groups are not supported on SuSE 11 for production use. See known issue 149789783.

Note: For Greenplum Database that is installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.x or CentOS 7.x prior to 7.3, an operating system issue might cause Greenplum Database that is running large workloads to hang in the workload. The Greenplum Database issue is caused by Linux kernel bugs.

RHEL 7.3 and CentOS 7.3 resolves the issue.

Note: Greenplum Database on SuSE Linux Enterprise systems does not support the PL/Perl procedural language or the gpmapreduce tool.
Greenplum Database support on Dell EMC DCA.
  • Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0, is supported on DCA systems that are running DCA software version 3.4 or greater.

    Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported on DCA systems. Open source versions of Greenplum Database are not supported.

    Pivotal Greenplum 5.1 and 5.0 are not supported on DCA systems with FIPS enabled.

Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 supports these Java versions:
  • 8.xxx
  • 7.xxx

Greenplum Database 5.2.0 software that runs on Linux systems uses OpenSSL 1.0.2l (with FIPS 2.0.16), cURL 7.54, OpenLDAP 2.4.44, and Python 2.7.12.

Greenplum Database client software that runs on Windows and AIX systems uses OpenSSL 0.9.8zg.

The Greenplum Database s3 external table protocol supports these data sources:

Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 supports Data Domain Boost on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

This table lists the versions of Data Domain Boost SDK and DDOS supported by Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Table 1. Data Domain Boost Compatibility
Pivotal Greenplum Data Domain Boost DDOS
5.2.0

5.1.0

5.0.0

3.3

3.0.0.31

6.1 (all versions)

6.0 (all versions)

Note: In addition to the DDOS versions listed in the previous table, Pivotal Greenplum 5.0.0 and later supports all minor patch releases (fourth digit releases) later than the certified version.

1Support for Data Domain Boost 3.0.0.3 is deprecated. The DELL EMC end of Primary Support date is December 31, 2017.

Note: Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 does not support the ODBC driver for Cognos Analytics V11.

Connecting to IBM Cognos software with an ODBC driver is not supported. Greenplum Database supports connecting to IBM Cognos software with the DataDirect JDBC driver for Pivotal Greenplum. This driver is available as a download from Pivotal Network.

Veritas NetBackup

Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 supports backup with Veritas NetBackup version 7.7.3. See Backing Up Databases with Veritas NetBackup.

Supported Platform Notes

The following notes describe platform support for Pivotal Greenplum. Please send any questions or comments to Pivotal Support at https://support.pivotal.io.

  • The only file system supported for running Greenplum Database is the XFS file system. All other file systems are explicitly not supported by Pivotal.
  • Greenplum Database is supported on all 1U and 2U commodity servers with local storage. Special purpose hardware that is not commodity may be supported at the full discretion of Pivotal Product Management based on the general similarity of the hardware to commodity servers.
  • Greenplum Database is supported on network or shared storage if the shared storage is presented as a block device to the servers running Greenplum Database and the XFS file system is mounted on the block device. Network file systems are not supported. When using network or shared storage, Greenplum Database mirroring must be used in the same way as with local storage, and no modifications may be made to the mirroring scheme or the recovery scheme of the segments. Other features of the shared storage such as de-duplication and/or replication are not directly supported by Pivotal Greenplum Database, but may be used with support of the storage vendor as long as they do not interfere with the expected operation of Greenplum Database at the discretion of Pivotal.
  • Greenplum Database is supported when running on virtualized systems, as long as the storage is presented as block devices and the XFS file system is mounted for the storage of the segment directories.
  • A minimum of 10-gigabit network is required for a system configuration to be supported by Pivotal.
  • Greenplum Database is supported on Amazon Web Services (AWS) servers using either Amazon instance store (Amazon uses the volume names ephemeral[0-20]) or Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) storage. If using Amazon EBS storage the storage should be RAID of Amazon EBS volumes and mounted with the XFS file system for it to be a supported configuration.
  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2 or CentOS 7.2, the default systemd setting RemoveIPC=yes removes IPC connections when non-system users logout. This causes the Greenplum Database utility gpinitsystem to fail with semaphore errors. To avoid this issue, see "Setting the Greenplum Recommended OS Parameters" in the Greenplum Database Installation Guide.

Pivotal Greenplum Tools and Extensions Compatibility

Client Tools

Greenplum releases a number of client tool packages on various platforms that can be used to connect to Greenplum Database and the Greenplum Command Center management tool. The following table describes the compatibility of these packages with this Greenplum Database release.

Tool packages are available from Pivotal Network.

Table 2. Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 Tools Compatibility
Tool Description of Contents Tool Version Server Versions
Pivotal Greenplum Clients Greenplum Database Command-Line Interface (psql) 5.0 5.0.0
Pivotal Greenplum Loaders Greenplum Database Parallel Data Loading Tools (gpfdist, gpload) 5.0 5.0.0
Pivotal Greenplum Command Center Greenplum Database management tool 3.2.2 and later 5.0.0
Pivotal Greenplum Workload Manager Greenplum Database query monitoring and management tool 1.8.0 5.0.0

The Greenplum Database Client Tools and Load Tools are supported on the following platforms:

  • AIX 7.2 (64-bit) (Client and Load Tools only)
    Note: The Clients for AIX7 package is not available for download with Greenplum Database 5.2.0; download this package from the Greenplum Database 5.0.0 file collection on Pivotal Network.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux x86_64 7.x (RHEL 7)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux x86_64 6.x (RHEL 6)
  • SuSE Linux Enterprise Server x86_64 SLES 11
  • Windows 10 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows 8 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2012 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 (32-bit and 64-bit)

Extensions

Table 3. Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 Extensions Compatibility
Pivotal Greenplum Extension Versions
MADlib machine learning for Greenplum Database 5.0.x1 MADlib 1.12, 1.11
PL/Java for Greenplum Database 5.0.x PL/Java 1.4.2, 1.4.0
PL/R for Greenplum Database 5.0.x 2.3.0, 2.2.0
PostGIS Spatial and Geographic Objects for Greenplum Database 5.0.x 2.1.5
Python Data Science Module Package for Greenplum Database 5.0.x2 1.0.0, 1.1.0
R Data Science Library Package for Greenplum Database 5.0.x3 1.0.0
Note: 1For information about MADlib support and upgrade information, see the MADlib FAQ.

2For information about the Python package, including the modules provided, see the Python Data Science Module Package.

3For information about the R package, including the libraries provided, see the R Data Science Library Package.

These Greenplum Database extensions are installed with Pivotal Greenplum Database
  • Fuzzy String Match Extension
  • PL/Python Extension
  • pgcrypto Extension

Pivotal Greenplum Data Connectors

  • Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF) - PXF, integrated with Greenplum Database 5.2.0, provides access to HDFS, Hive, and HBase external data stores. Refer to Accessing External Data with PXF in the Greenplum Database Administrator Guide for PXF configuration and usage information.
  • Greenplum-Spark Connector - The Pivotal Greenplum-Spark Connector supports high speed, parallel data transfer from Greenplum Database to an Apache Spark cluster. The Greenplum-Spark Connector is available as a separate download from Pivotal Network. Refer to the Greenplum-Spark Connector documentation for compatibility and usage information.
  • Gemfire-Greenplum Connector - The Pivotal Gemfire-Greenplum Connector supports the transfer of data between a GemFire region and a Greenplum Database cluster. The Gemfire-Greenplum Connector is available as a separate download from Pivotal Network. Refer to the Gemfire-Greenplum Connector documentation for compatibility and usage information.

Pivotal GPText Compatibility

Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.2.0 is compatible with Pivotal GPText version 2.1.3 and later.

Pivotal Greenplum Command Center

See the Greenplum Command Center documentation site for GPCC and Greenplum Workload Manager compatibility information.

Hadoop Distribution Compatibility

Greenplum Database provides access to HDFS with gphdfs and the Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF).

PXF Hadoop Distribution Compatibility

PXF supports Cloudera, Hortonworks Data Platform, and generic Apache Hadoop distributions.

If you plan to access JSON format data stored in a Cloudera Hadoop cluster, PXF requires a Cloudera version 5.8 or later Hadoop distribution.

gphdfs Hadoop Distribution Compatibility

The supported Hadoop distributions for gphdfs are listed below:

Table 4. Supported gphdfs Hadoop Distributions
Hadoop Distribution Version gp_hadoop_ target_version
Cloudera CDH 5.2, 5.3, 5.4.x - 5.8.x cdh5
CDH 5.0, 5.1 cdh4.1
Hortonworks Data Platform HDP 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 hdp2
MapR MapR 4.x, MapR 5.x gpmr-1.2
Apache Hadoop 2.x hadoop2
Note: MapR requires the MapR client. For MapR 5.x, only TEXT and CSV are supported in the FORMAT clause of the CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE command.

Upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.2.0

The upgrade path supported for this release is Greenplum Database 5.x to Greenplum Database 5.2.0. Upgrading a Greenplum Database 4.3.x release to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is not supported. See Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Note: If you are upgrading Greenplum Database on a DCA system, see Pivotal Greenplum on DCA Systems.

Prerequisites

Before starting the upgrade process, Pivotal recommends performing the following checks.

  • Verify the health of the Greenplum Database host hardware, and that you verify that the hosts meet the requirements for running Greenplum Database. The Greenplum Database gpcheckperf utility can assist you in confirming the host requirements.
    Note: If you need to run the gpcheckcat utility, Pivotal recommends running it a few weeks before the upgrade and that you run gpcheckcat during a maintenance period. If necessary, you can resolve any issues found by the utility before the scheduled upgrade.

    The utility is in $GPHOME/bin. Pivotal recommends that Greenplum Database be in restricted mode when you run gpcheckcat utility. See the Greenplum Database Utility Guide for information about the gpcheckcat utility.

    If gpcheckcat reports catalog inconsistencies, you can run gpcheckcat with the -g option to generate SQL scripts to fix the inconsistencies.

    After you run the SQL scripts, run gpcheckcat again. You might need to repeat the process of running gpcheckcat and creating SQL scripts to ensure that there are no inconsistencies. Pivotal recommends that the SQL scripts generated by gpcheckcat be run on a quiescent system. The utility might report false alerts if there is activity on the system.

    Important: If the gpcheckcat utility reports errors, but does not generate a SQL script to fix the errors, contact Pivotal support. Information for contacting Pivotal Support is at https://support.pivotal.io.
  • During the migration process from Greenplum Database 5.0.0, a backup is made of some files and directories in $MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY. Pivotal recommends that files and directories that are not used by Greenplum Database be backed up, if necessary, and removed from the $MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY before migration. For information about the Greenplum Database migration utilities, see the Greenplum Database Documentation.

For information about supported versions of Greenplum Database extensions, see Pivotal Greenplum Tools and Extensions Compatibility.

If you are utilizing Data Domain Boost, you have to re-enter your DD Boost credentials after upgrading from Greenplum Database 4.2.x.x to 4.3.x.x as follows:

gpcrondump --ddboost-host ddboost_hostname --ddboost-user ddboost_user
  --ddboost-backupdir backup_directory
Note: If you do not reenter your login credentials after an upgrade, your backup will never start because the Greenplum Database cannot connect to the Data Domain system. You will receive an error advising you to check your login credentials.

If you have configured the Greenplum Platform Extension Framework (PXF) in your previous Greenplum Database installation, you must stop the PXF service and back up PXF configuration files before upgrading to a new version of Greenplum Database. Refer to PXF Pre-Upgrade Actions for instructions.

If you do not plan to use PXF, or you have not yet configured PXF, no action is necessary.

Upgrading from 5.x to 5.2.0

An upgrade from 5.x to 5.2.0 involves stopping Greenplum Database, updating the Greenplum Database software binaries, upgrading and restarting Greenplum Database. If you are using Greenplum Database extension packages there are additional requirements. See Prerequisites in the previous section.

Note: If the Greenplum Command Center database gpperfmon is installed in your Greenplum Database system, the migration process changes the distribution key of the Greenplum Database log_alert_* tables to the logtime column. The redistribution of the table data might take some time the first time you start Greenplum Database after migration. The change occurs only the first time you start Greenplum Database after a migration.
  1. Log in to your Greenplum Database master host as the Greenplum administrative user:
    $ su - gpadmin
  2. Perform a smart shutdown of your current Greenplum Database 5.x system (there can be no active connections to the database). This example uses the -a option to disable confirmation prompts:
    $ gpstop -a
  3. Run the binary installer for 5.2.0 on the Greenplum Database master host.
    When prompted, choose an installation location in the same base directory as your current installation. For example:
    /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.2.0

    If you install Greenplum Database with the rpm (as root), the installation directory is /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.2.0.

    For the rpm installation, update the permissions for the new installation. For example, run this command as root to change user and group of the installed files to gpadmin.

    # chown -R gpadmin:gpadmin /usr/local/greenplum*
  4. If your Greenplum Database deployment uses LDAP authentication, manually edit the /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh file to add the line:
    export LDAPCONF=/etc/openldap/ldap.conf
  5. Edit the environment of the Greenplum Database superuser (gpadmin) and make sure you are sourcing the greenplum_path.sh file for the new installation. For example change the following line in .bashrc or your chosen profile file:
    source /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.0.0/greenplum_path.sh

    to:

    source /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.2.0/greenplum_path.sh

    Or if you are sourcing a symbolic link (/usr/local/greenplum-db) in your profile files, update the link to point to the newly installed version. For example:

    $ rm /usr/local/greenplum-db
    $ ln -s /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.2.0 /usr/local/greenplum-db
  6. Source the environment file you just edited. For example:
    $ source ~/.bashrc
  7. Run the gpseginstall utility to install the 5.2.0 binaries on all the segment hosts specified in the hostfile. For example:
    $ gpseginstall -f hostfile
  8. Use the Greenplum Database gppkg utility to install Greenplum Database extensions. If you were previously using any Greenplum Database extensions such as pgcrypto, PL/R, PL/Java, PL/Perl, and PostGIS, download the corresponding packages from Pivotal Network, and install using this utility. See the Greenplum Database Documentation for gppkg usage details.
  9. After all segment hosts have been upgraded, you can log in as the gpadmin user and restart your Greenplum Database system:
    # su - gpadmin
    $ gpstart
  10. If you are utilizing Data Domain Boost, you have to re-enter your DD Boost credentials after upgrading from Greenplum Database to 5.2.0 as follows:
    gpcrondump --ddboost-host ddboost_hostname --ddboost-user ddboost_user
      --ddboost-backupdir backup_directory
    Note: If you do not reenter your login credentials after an upgrade, your backup will never start because the Greenplum Database cannot connect to the Data Domain system. You will receive an error advising you to check your login credentials.
  11. If you configured PXF in your previous Greenplum Database installation, you must re-initialize the PXF service after you upgrade Greenplum Database. Refer to Upgrading PXF for instructions.

Troubleshooting a Failed Upgrade

If you experience issues during the migration process and have active entitlements for Greenplum Database that were purchased through Pivotal, contact Pivotal Support. Information for contacting Pivotal Support is at https://support.pivotal.io.

Be prepared to provide the following information:

  • A completed Upgrade Procedure.
  • Log output from gpcheckcat (located in ~/gpAdminLogs)

Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x

Upgrading a Pivotal Greenplum Database 4.x system directly to Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.x is not supported.

You can migrate existing data to Greenplum Database 5.x using standard backup and restore procedures (gpcrondump and gpdbrestore) or by using gptransfer if both clusters will run side-by-side.

Follow these general guidelines for migrating data:
  • Make sure that you have a complete backup of all data in the Greenplum Database 4.3.x cluster, and that you can successfully restore the Greenplum Database 4.3.x cluster if necessary.
  • You must install and initialize a new Greenplum Database 5.x cluster using the version 5.x gpinitsystem utility.
    Note: Unless you modify file locations manually, gpdbrestore only supports restoring data to a cluster that has an identical number of hosts and an identical number of segments per host, with each segment having the same content_id as the segment in the original cluster. If you initialize the Greenplum Database 5.x cluster using a configuration that is different from the version 4.3 cluster, then follow the steps outlined in Restoring to a Different Greenplum System Configuration to manually update the file locations.
  • If you intend to install Greenplum Database 5.x on the same hardware as your 4.3.x system, you will need enough disk space to accommodate over 5 times the original data set (2 full copies of the primary and mirror data sets, plus the original backup data in ASCII format). Keep in mind that the ASCII backup data will require more disk space than the original data, which may be stored in compressed binary format. Offline backup solutions such as Dell EMC Data Domain or Veritas NetBackup can reduce the required disk space on each host.
  • Use the version 5.x gpdbrestore utility to load the 4.3.x backup data into the new cluster.
  • If the Greenplum Database 5.x cluster resides on separate hardware from the 4.3.x cluster, you can optionally use the version 5.x gptransfer utility to migrate the 4.3.x data. You must initiate the gptransfer operation from the version 5.x cluster, pulling the older data into the newer system.

    On a Greenplum Database system with FIPS enabled, validating table data with MD5 (specifying the option --validate=md5) is not available. Use the option sha256 to validate table data.

    Validating table data with SHA-256 (specifying the option --validate=sha256) requires the Greenplum Database pgcrypto extension. The extension is included with Pivotal Greenplum 5.x. The extension package must be installed on supported Pivotal Greenplum 4.3.x systems. Support for pgcrypto functions in a Greenplum 4.3.x database is not required.

  • After migrating data you may need to modify SQL scripts, administration scripts, and user-defined functions as necessary to account for changes in Greenplum Database version 5.x. Look for Upgrade Action Required entries in the Pivotal Greenplum 5.0.0 Release Notes for features that may necessitate post-migration tasks.

Pivotal Greenplum on DCA Systems

On supported Dell EMC DCA systems, you can install Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0, or you can upgrade from Pivotal Greenplum 5.x to 5.2.0.

Only Pivotal Greenplum Database is supported on DCA systems. Open source versions of Greenplum Database are not supported.

Important: Upgrading Pivotal Greenplum Database 4.3.x to Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 is not supported. See Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Installing the Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 Software Binaries on DCA Systems

Important: This section is for installing Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 only on DCA systems. Also, see the information on the DELL EMC support site (requires login).

For information about installing Pivotal Greenplum on non-DCA systems, see the Greenplum Database Installation Guide.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure your DCA system supports Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0. See Supported Platforms.
  • Ensure Greenplum Database 4.3.x is not installed on your system.

    Installing Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 on a DCA system with an existing Greenplum Database 4.3.x installation is not supported. For information about uninstalling Greenplum Database software, see your Dell EMC DCA documentation.

Installing Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0

  1. Download or copy the Greenplum Database DCA installer file greenplum-db-appliance-5.2.0-RHEL6-x86_64.bin to the Greenplum Database master host.
  2. As root, run the DCA installer for 5.2.0 on the Greenplum Database master host and specify the file hostfile that lists all hosts in the cluster, one host name per line. If necessary, copy hostfile to the directory containing the installer before running the installer.

    This example command runs the installer for Greenplum Database 5.2.0.

    # ./greenplum-db-appliance-5.2.0-RHEL6-x86_64.bin hostfile

Upgrading from 5.x to 5.2.0 on DCA Systems

Upgrading Pivotal Greenplum from 5.x to 5.2.0 on a Dell EMC DCA system involves stopping Greenplum Database, updating the Greenplum Database software binaries, and restarting Greenplum Database.

Important: This section is only for upgrading to Pivotal Greenplum 5.2.0 on DCA systems. For information about upgrading on non-DCA systems, see Upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.2.0.
  1. Log in to your Greenplum Database master host as the Greenplum administrative user (gpadmin):
    # su - gpadmin
  2. Download or copy the installer file greenplum-db-appliance-5.2.0-RHEL6-x86_64.bin to the Greenplum Database master host.
  3. Perform a smart shutdown of your current Greenplum Database 5.x system (there can be no active connections to the database). This example uses the -a option to disable confirmation prompts:
    $ gpstop -a
  4. As root, run the Greenplum Database DCA installer for 5.2.0 on the Greenplum Database master host and specify the file hostfile that lists all hosts in the cluster. If necessary, copy hostfile to the directory containing the installer before running the installer.

    This example command runs the installer for Greenplum Database 5.2.0 for Redhat Enterprise Linux 6.x.

    # ./greenplum-db-appliance-5.2.0-RHEL6-x86_64.bin hostfile

    The file hostfile is a text file that lists all hosts in the cluster, one host name per line.

  5. Install Greenplum Database extension packages. For information about installing a Greenplum Database extension package, see gppkg in the Greenplum Database Utility Guide.
  6. After all segment hosts have been upgraded, you can log in as the gpadmin user and restart your Greenplum Database system:
    # su - gpadmin
    $ gpstart
  7. If you are utilizing Data Domain Boost, you have to re-enter your DD Boost credentials after upgrading to Greenplum Database 5.2.0 as follows:
    gpcrondump --ddboost-host ddboost_hostname --ddboost-user ddboost_user
      --ddboost-backupdir backup_directory
Note: If you do not reenter your login credentials after an upgrade, your backup will never start because the Greenplum Database cannot connect to the Data Domain system. You will receive an error advising you to check your login credentials.

Resolved Issues

The listed issues that are resolved in Pivotal Greenplum Database 5.2.0

For issues resolved in prior 5.x releases, refer to the corresponding release notes. Release notes are available from the Pivotal Greenplum page on Pivotal Network or on the Pivotal Greenplum Database documentation site at Release Notes.

29110 - Catalog and Metadata
In some cases, after splitting a leaf partition of a mutli-level partitioned table with the ALTER TABLE command with the PARTITION SPLIT clause, inserting data into the table returned the error no partition for partitioning key. The insert error occurred because Greenplum Database did not update the partitioned table metadata correctly when splitting the leaf partition.

This issue has been resolved. Greenplum Database has improved the managing of table metadata when splitting a leaf partition.

29099 - Backup and Restore
The Greenplum Database gpdbrestore utility failed when the table data contains an SQL command. For example, the text SET search_path = demo has been inserted into a table that has been backed up. The gpdbrestore utility fails when it attempted to restore the table.

This issue has been resolved. Now the utility can restore tables that contain SQL command text.

29092 - Query Optimizer
GPORCA generated a Greenplum Database PANIC when generating a plan for query that contains a function that is nested in a window function. Greenplum Database does not support queries that contain a function that is nested in a window function.

This issue has been resolved. Now Greenplum Database returns an error for the specified type of queries.

29083 - DLL
If the default table storage options specified by the server configuration parameter gp_default_storage_options are different than the storage options that are defined for a table, altering the table with an ALTER TABLE command with the REORGANIZE=TRUE clause, might corrupt the table data. For example, after creating a table, changing gp_default_storage_options so that the default table storage orientation is column, and then using the ALTER TABLE command with the REORGANIZE=TRUE clause.

The issue occurred because the ALTER TABLE command with the REORGANIZE=TRUE clause did not recognize the correct table storage options during table data reorganization.

This issue has been resolved. The ALTER TABLE command detects the correct table storage options during table data reorganization.

29068 - dblink
Greenplum Database generated a PANIC when a dblink function call was issued by a Greenplum Database user who was not a superuser.

This issue has been resolved. Now a dblink function call can be issued by a non-superuser. A non-superuser must include a hostname and password in the dblink connection string.

29065 - Query Execution
Greenplum Database does not support splitting a leaf child partition of a partition table if the leaf partition is defined as list partition. However, in some cases, attempting to split a list partition caused a Greenplum Database PANIC.
This issue has been resolved. Now Greenplum Database returns an error for the specified situation.
29046 - Query Execution
For some group aggregate queries with a GROUP BY clause that contains a CUBE and also specify a HAVING clause, Greenplum Database generated a PANCIC. The PANIC was generated during aggregation when Greenplum Database did not handle a NULL case properly.

This issue has been resolved. For the specified type of queries, the handling of NULL casees during aggregation has been improved.

29012 - gpload
In some cases, the Greenplum Database utility gpload recorded the incorrect number of rejected rows when loading data the when utility was configured to log errors. The utility did not properly record errors from multiple Greenplum Database segment instances.

This issue has been resolved. Now the utility correctly records errors from multiple segments.

26956 - Query Optimizer
For some queries, GPORCA did not choose a query plan with bitmap index scan when a bitmap index on a column could be used as a filter condition in the query. This caused a performance degradation when comparing GPORCA with the legacy query planner.

This issue has been resolved. Now GPORCA chooses the faster plan with the bitmap index scan.

23438 - gpcheckcat
The Greenplum Database gpcheckcat utility test missing_extraneous returned incorrect results when the test found database catalog inconsistencies. The test did not process the inconsistencies correctly.

This issue has been resolved. Now the utility returns correct results when the test finds catalog inconsistencies.

152083437 - Query Execution
Some queries that perform in-memory operations generated an invalid memory alloc request error for some values of the statement_mem server configuration parameter. The error was caused when an in-memory operation exceeded a maximum allowed numeric value.

This issue has been resolved. The maximum allowed value has been increased to avoid the error.

151468673 - Client and Loader Tools
For the Greenplum Database 5.0.0 Client and Loader tools for RHEL and SLES platforms, the default installation path was not valid. The default installation path contains a : that is not handled properly.

This issue has been resolved. The default installation path for the updated Client and Loader tools is a valid path.

150243109 - Query Optimizer
GPORCA generated a PANIC when generating a plan for queries where the predicate performs a comparison of two subqueries, and the comparison also uses the clause ANY, ALL, IN, or NOT IN. GPORCA did not properly handle the subquery in left side of the comparison.

This issue has been resolved. Now GPORCA generates a plan successfully.

149970753 - Resource Groups
The Greenplum Database gpcrondump and gpdbrestore utilities did not backup or restore resource group configuration information.

This issue has been resolved. Now resource group information can be backed up and restored.

149628145 - DCA
Pivotal Greenplum 5.x was not certified as supported on DCA systems with FIPS enabled.
This issue has been resolved. Pivotal Greenplum 5.2 and later have been certified. Pivotal Greenplum 5.1 and 5.0 are not supported on DCA systems with FIPS enabled.

Known Issues and Limitations

Pivotal Greenplum 5.x has these limitations:

  • Upgrading a Greenplum Database 4.3.x release to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x is not supported. See Migrating Data to Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.
  • Some features are works-in-progress and are considered to be experimental features. Pivotal does not support using experimental features in a production environment. See Experimental Features.
  • Greenplum Database 4.3.x packages are not compatible with Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

The following table lists key known issues in Pivotal Greenplum 5.x.

Table 5. Key Known Issues in Pivotal Greenplum 5.x
Issue Category Description
3490 Backup and Restore The Greenplum Database backup and restore utilities gpcrondump, gpdbrestore, pg_dump, and pg_restore have limited support for backing up and restoring partitioned tables that have been altered by exchanging a leaf child partition with a readable external table.

You cannot back up and restore multi-level partitioned tables when a leaf child partition is a readable external table. You can back up and restore single-level partitioned tables when a leaf child partition is a readable external table if the partitions are named partitions (partitionname in the pg_partitions system view is not NULL for the partition).

151135629 COPY command When the ON SEGMENT clause is specified, the COPY command does not support specifying a SELECT statement in the COPY TO clause. For example, this command is not supported.
COPY (SELECT * FROM testtbl) TO '/tmp/mytst<SEGID>' ON SEGMENT
29064 Storage: DDL The money data type accepts out-of-range values as negative values, and no error message is displayed.

Workaround: Use only in-range values for the money data type (32-bit for Greenplum Database 4.x, or 64-bit for Greenplum Database 5.x). Or, use an alternative data type such as numeric or decimal.

3290 JSON The to_json() function is not implemented as a callable function. Attempting to call the function results in an error. For example:
tutorial=# select to_json('Fred said "Hi."'::text); 
ERROR: function to_json(text) does not exist
LINE 1: select to_json('Fred said "Hi."'::text);
^
HINT: No function matches the given name and argument types. 
You might need to add explicit type casts.

Workaround: Greenplum Database invokes to_json() internally when casting to the json data type, so perform a cast instead. For example: SELECT '{"foo":"bar"}'::json; Greenplum Database also provides the array_to_json() and row_to_json() functions.

148119917 Resource Groups Testing of the resource groups feature has found that a kernel panic can occur when using the default kernel in RHEL/CentOS system. The problem occurs due to a problem in the kernel cgroups implementation, and results in a kernel panic backtrace similar to:
[81375.325947] BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000010
      [81375.325986] IP: [<ffffffff812f94b1>] rb_next+0x1/0x50 [81375.326014] PGD 0 [81375.326025]
      Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP [81375.326041] Modules linked in: veth ipt_MASQUERADE
      nf_nat_masquerade_ipv4 iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 nf_nat_ipv4 xt_addrtype
      iptable_filter xt_conntrack nf_nat nf_conntrack bridge stp llc intel_powerclamp coretemp
      intel_rapl dm_thin_pool dm_persistent_data dm_bio_prison dm_bufio kvm_intel kvm crc32_pclmul
      ghash_clmulni_intel aesni_intel lrw gf128mul glue_helper ablk_helper cryptd iTCO_wdt
      iTCO_vendor_support ses enclosure ipmi_ssif pcspkr lpc_ich sg sb_edac mfd_core edac_core
      mei_me ipmi_si mei wmi ipmi_msghandler shpchp acpi_power_meter acpi_pad ip_tables xfs
      libcrc32c sd_mod crc_t10dif crct10dif_generic mgag200 syscopyarea sysfillrect crct10dif_pclmul
      sysimgblt crct10dif_common crc32c_intel drm_kms_helper ixgbe ttm mdio ahci igb libahci drm ptp
      pps_core libata dca i2c_algo_bit [81375.326369]  i2c_core megaraid_sas dm_mirror
      dm_region_hash dm_log dm_mod [81375.326396] CPU: 17 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/17 Not tainted
      3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64 #1 [81375.326422] Hardware name: Cisco Systems Inc
      UCSC-C240-M4L/UCSC-C240-M4L, BIOS C240M4.2.0.8b.0.080620151546 08/06/2015 [81375.326459] task:
      ffff88140ecec500 ti: ffff88140ed10000 task.ti: ffff88140ed10000 [81375.326485] RIP:
      0010:[<ffffffff812f94b1>]  [<ffffffff812f94b1>] rb_next+0x1/0x50 [81375.326514] RSP:
      0018:ffff88140ed13e10  EFLAGS: 00010046 [81375.326534] RAX: 0000000000000000 RBX:
      0000000000000000 RCX: 0000000000000000 [81375.326559] RDX: ffff88282f1d4800 RSI:
      ffff88280bc0f140 RDI: 0000000000000010 [81375.326584] RBP: ffff88140ed13e58 R08:
      0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000001 [81375.326609] R10: 0000000000000000 R11:
      0000000000000001 R12: ffff88280b0e7000 [81375.326634] R13: 0000000000000000 R14:
      0000000000000000 R15: 0000000000b6f979 [81375.326659] FS:  0000000000000000(0000)
      GS:ffff88282f1c0000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 [81375.326688] CS:  0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000
      CR0: 0000000080050033 [81375.326708] CR2: 0000000000000010 CR3: 000000000194a000 CR4:
      00000000001407e0 [81375.326733] DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2:
      0000000000000000 [81375.326758] DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7:
      0000000000000400 [81375.326783] Stack: [81375.326792]  ffff88140ed13e58 ffffffff810bf539
      ffff88282f1d4780 ffff88282f1d4780 [81375.326826]  ffff88140ececae8 ffff88282f1d4780
      0000000000000011 ffff88140ed10000 [81375.326861]  0000000000000000 ffff88140ed13eb8
      ffffffff8163a10a ffff88140ecec500 [81375.326895] Call Trace: [81375.326912]
      [<ffffffff810bf539>] ? pick_next_task_fair+0x129/0x1d0 [81375.326940]  [<ffffffff8163a10a>]
      __schedule+0x12a/0x900 [81375.326961]  [<ffffffff8163b9e9>] schedule_preempt_disabled+0x29/0x70
      [81375.326987]  [<ffffffff810d6244>] cpu_startup_entry+0x184/0x290 [81375.327011]
      [<ffffffff810475fa>] start_secondary+0x1ba/0x230 [81375.327032] Code: e5 48 85 c0 75 07 eb 19 66
      90 48 89 d0 48 8b 50 10 48 85 d2 75 f4 48 8b 50 08 48 85 d2 75 eb 5d c3 31 c0 5d c3 0f 1f 44
      00 00 55 <48> 8b 17 48 89 e5 48 39 d7 74 3b 48 8b 47 08 48 85 c0 75 0e eb [81375.327157] RIP
      [<ffffffff812f94b1>] rb_next+0x1/0x50 [81375.327179]  RSP <ffff88140ed13e10> [81375.327192] CR2:
      0000000000000010

Workaround: Upgrade to the latest-available kernel for your Red Hat or CentOS release to avoid the above system panic.

149789783 Resource Groups Significant Pivotal Greenplum performance degradation has been observed when enabling resource group-based workload management on RedHat 6.x, CentOS 6.x, and SuSE 11 systems. This issue is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug. This kernel bug has been fixed in CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

When resource groups are enabled on systems with an affected kernel, there can be a delay of 1 second or longer when starting a transaction or a query. The delay is caused by a Linux cgroup kernel bug where a synchronization mechanism called synchronize_sched is abused when a process is attached to a cgroup. See http://www.spinics.net/lists/cgroups/msg05708.html and https://lkml.org/lkml/2013/1/14/97 for more information.

The issue causes single attachment operations to take longer and also causes all concurrent attachments to be executed in sequence. For example, one process attachment could take about 0.01 second. When concurrently attaching 100 processes, the fastest process attachment takes 0.01 second and the slowest takes about 1 second. Pivotal Greenplum performs process attachments when a transaction or queries are started. So the performance degradation is dependent on concurrent started transactions or queries, and not related to concurrent running queries. Also Pivotal Greenplum has optimizations to bypass the rewriting when a QE is reused by multiple queries in the same session.

Workaround: This bug does not affect CentOS 7.x and Red Hat 7.x systems.

If you use RedHat 6 and the performance with resource groups is acceptable for your use case, upgrade your kernel to version 2.6.32-696 or higher to benefit from other fixes to the cgroups implementation.

SuSE 11 does not have a kernel version that resolves this issue; resource groups are still considered to be an experimental feature on this platform. Resource groups are not supported on SuSE 11 for production use..

150906510 Backup and Restore Greenplum Database 4.3.15.0 and later backups contain the following line in the backup files:
SET gp_strict_xml_parse = false;

However, Greenplum Database 5.0.0 does not have a parameter named gp_strict_xml_parse. When you restore the 4.3 backup set to the 5.0.0 cluster, you may see the warning:

[WARNING]:-gpdbrestore finished but ERRORS were found, please check the restore report file for details

Also, the report file may contain the error:

ERROR:  unrecognized configuration parameter "gp_strict_xml_parse"

These warnings and errors do not affect the restoration procedure, and can be ignored.