gpbackup

gpbackup

Create a Greenplum Database backup for use with the gprestore utility.

Synopsis

gpbackup --dbname database_name
   [--backup-dir directory]
   [--compression-level level]
   [--data-only]
   [--debug]
   [--exclude-schema schema_name]
   [--exclude-table schema.table]
   [--exclude-table-file file_name]
   [--include-schema schema_name]
   [--include-table schema.table]
   [--include-table-file file_name]
   [--incremental [--from-timestamp backup-timestamp]]
   [--jobs int]
   [--leaf-partition-data]
   [--metadata-only]
   [--no-compression]
   [--plugin-config config_file_location]
   [--quiet]
   [--single-data-file]
   [--verbose]
   [--version]
   [--with-stats]

gpbackup --help 

Description

The gpbackup utility backs up the contents of a database into a collection of metadata files and data files that can be used to restore the database at a later time using gprestore. When you back up a database, you can specify table level and schema level filter options to back up specific tables. For example, you can combine schema level and table level options to back up all the tables in a schema except for a single table.

By default, gpbackup backs up objects in the specified database as well as global Greenplum Database system objects. You can optionally supply the --with-globals option with gprestore to restore global objects. See Objects Included in a Backup or Restore for additional information.

gpbackup stores the object metadata files and DDL files for a backup in the Greenplum Database master data directory by default. Greenplum Database segments use the COPY ... ON SEGMENT command to store their data for backed-up tables in compressed CSV data files, located in each segment's data directory. See Understanding Backup Files for additional information.

You can add the --backup-dir option to copy all backup files from the Greenplum Database master and segment hosts to an absolute path for later use. Additional options are provided to filter the backup set in order to include or exclude specific tables.

You can create an incremental backup with the --incremental option. Incremental backups are efficient when the total amount of data in append-optimized tables or table partitions that changed is small compared to the data has not changed. See Creating Incremental Backups with gpbackup and gprestore for information about incremental backups.

With the default --jobs option (1 job), each gpbackup operation uses a single transaction on the Greenplum Database master host. The COPY ... ON SEGMENT command performs the backup task in parallel on each segment host. The backup process acquires an ACCESS SHARE lock on each table that is backed up. During the table locking process, the database should be in a quiescent state.

When a back up operation completes, gpbackup returns a status code. See Return Codes.

gpbackup can send status email notifications after a back up operation completes. You specify when the utility sends the mail and the email recipients in a configuration file. See Configuring Email Notifications.

Note: This utility uses secure shell (SSH) connections between systems to perform its tasks. In large Greenplum Database deployments, cloud deployments, or deployments with a large number of segments per host, this utility may exceed the host's maximum threshold for unauthenticated connections. Consider updating the SSH MaxStartups configuration parameter to increase this threshold. For more information about SSH configuration options, refer to the SSH documentation for your Linux distribution.

Options

--dbname database_name
Required. Specifies the database to back up.
--backup-dir directory
Optional. Copies all required backup files (metadata files and data files) to the specified directory. You must specify directory as an absolute path (not relative). If you do not supply this option, metadata files are created on the Greenplum Database master host in the $MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY/backups/YYYYMMDD/YYYYMMDDhhmmss/ directory. Segment hosts create CSV data files in the <seg_dir>/backups/YYYYMMDD/YYYYMMDDhhmmss/ directory. When you specify a custom backup directory, files are copied to these paths in subdirectories of the backup directory.
You cannot combine this option with the option --plugin-config.
--compression-level level
Optional. Specifies the gzip compression level (from 1 to 9) used to compress data files. The default is 1. Note that gpbackup uses compression by default.
--data-only
Optional. Backs up only the table data into CSV files, but does not backup metadata files needed to recreate the tables and other database objects.
--debug
Optional. Displays verbose debug messages during operation.
--exclude-schema schema_name
Optional. Specifies a database schema to exclude from the backup. You can specify this option multiple times to exclude multiple schemas. You cannot combine this option with the option --include-schema, or a table filtering option such as --include-table. See Filtering the Contents of a Backup or Restore for more information.
--exclude-table schema.table
Optional. Specifies a table to exclude from the backup. The table must be in the format <schema-name>.<table-name>. If a table or schema name uses any character other than a lowercase letter, number, or an underscore character, then you must include that name in double quotes. You can specify this option multiple times. You cannot combine this option with the option --exclude-schema, or another a table filtering option such as --include-table.
You cannot use this option in combination with --leaf-partition-data. Although you can specify leaf partition names, gpbackup ignores the partition names.
See Filtering the Contents of a Backup or Restore for more information.
--exclude-table-file file_name
Optional. Specifies a text file containing a list of tables to exclude from the backup. Each line in the text file must define a single table using the format <schema-name>.<table-name>. The file must not include trailing lines. If a table or schema name uses any character other than a lowercase letter, number, or an underscore character, then you must include that name in double quotes. You cannot combine this option with the option --exclude-schema, or another a table filtering option such as --include-table.
You cannot use this option in combination with --leaf-partition-data. Although you can specify leaf partition names in a file specified with --exclude-table-file, gpbackup ignores the partition names.
See Filtering the Contents of a Backup or Restore for more information.
--include-schema schema_name
Optional. Specifies a database schema to include in the backup. You can specify this option multiple times to include multiple schemas. If you specify this option, any schemas that are not included in subsequent --include-schema options are omitted from the backup set. You cannot combine this option with the options --exclude-schema, --include-table, or --include-table-file. See Filtering the Contents of a Backup or Restore for more information.
--include-table schema.table
Optional. Specifies a table to include in the backup. The table must be in the format <schema-name>.<table-name>. If a table or schema name uses any character other than a lowercase letter, number, or an underscore character, then you must include that name in double quotes. You can specify this option multiple times. You cannot combine this option with a schema filtering option such as --include-schema, or another table filtering option such as --exclude-table-file.
You can also specify the qualified name of a sequence or a view.
If you specify this option, the utility does not automatically back up dependent objects. You must also explicitly specify dependent objects that are required. For example if you back up a view, you must also back up the tables that the view uses. If you back up a table that uses a sequence, you must also back up the sequence.
You can optionally specify a table leaf partition name in place of the table name, to include only specific leaf partitions in a backup with the --leaf-partition-data option. When a leaf partition is backed up, the leaf partition data is backed up along with the metadata for the partitioned table.
See Filtering the Contents of a Backup or Restore for more information.
--include-table-file file_name
Optional. Specifies a text file containing a list of tables to include in the backup. Each line in the text file must define a single table using the format <schema-name>.<table-name>. The file must not include trailing lines. If a table or schema name uses any character other than a lowercase letter, number, or an underscore character, then you must include that name in double quotes. Any tables not listed in this file are omitted from the backup set. You cannot combine this option with a schema filtering option such as --include-schema, or another table filtering option such as --exclude-table-file.
You can also specify the qualified name of a sequence or a view.
If you specify this option, the utility does not automatically back up dependent objects. You must also explicitly specify dependent objects that are required. For example if you back up a view, you must also specify the tables that the view uses. If you specify a table that uses a sequence, you must also specify the sequence.
You can optionally specify a table leaf partition name in place of the table name, to include only specific leaf partitions in a backup with the --leaf-partition-data option. When a leaf partition is backed up, the leaf partition data is backed up along with the metadata for the partitioned table.
See Filtering the Contents of a Backup or Restore for more information.
--incremental
Specify this option to add an incremental backup to an incremental backup set. A backup set is a full backup and one or more incremental backups. The backups in the set must be created with a consistent set of backup options to ensure that the backup set can be used in a restore operation.
By default, gpbackup attempts to find the most recent existing backup with a consistent set of options. If the backup is a full backup, the utility creates a backup set. If the backup is an incremental backup, the utility adds the backup to the existing backup set. The incremental backup is added as the latest backup in the backup set. You can specify --from-timestamp to override the default behavior.
--from-timestamp backup-timestamp
Optional. Specifies the timestamp of a backup. The specified backup must have backup options that are consistent with the incremental backup that is being created. If the specified backup is a full backup, the utility creates a backup set. If the specified backup is an incremental backup, the utility adds the incremental backup to the existing backup set.
You must specify --leaf-partition-data with this option. You cannot combine this option with --data-only or --metadata-only.
A backup is not created and the utility returns an error if the backup cannot add the backup to an existing incremental backup set or cannot use the backup to create a backup set.
For information about creating and using incremental backups, see Creating Incremental Backups with gpbackup and gprestore.
--jobs int
Optional. Specifies the number of jobs to run in parallel when backing up tables. By default, gpbackup uses 1 job (database connection). Increasing this number can improve the speed of backing up data. When running multiple jobs, each job backs up tables in a separate transaction. For example, if you specify --jobs 2, the utility creates two processes, each process starts a single transaction, and the utility backs up the tables in parallel using the two processes.
Important: If you specify a value higher than 1, the database must be in a quiescent state while the utility acquires a lock on the tables that are being backed up. If database operations are being performed on tables that are being backed up during the table locking process, consistency between tables that are backed up in different transactions cannot be guaranteed.
You cannot use this option in combination with the options --metadata-only, --single-data-file, or --plugin-config.
--leaf-partition-data
Optional. For partitioned tables, creates one data file per leaf partition instead of one data file for the entire table (the default). Using this option also enables you to specify individual leaf partitions to include in a backup, with the --include-table-file option. You cannot use this option in combination with --exclude-table-file or --exclude-table.
--metadata-only
Optional. Creates only the metadata files (DDL) needed to recreate the database objects, but does not back up the actual table data.
--no-compression
Optional. Do not compress the table data CSV files.
--plugin-config config-file_location
Specify the location of the gpbackup plugin configuration file, a YAML-formatted text file. The file contains configuration information for the plugin application that gpbackup uses during the backup operation.
If you specify the --plugin-config option when you back up a database, you must specify this option with configuration information for a corresponding plugin application when you restore the database from the backup.
You cannot combine this option with the option --backup-dir.
For information about using storage plugin applications, see Using gpbackup Storage Plugins.
--quiet
Optional. Suppress all non-warning, non-error log messages.
--single-data-file
Optional. Create a single data file on each segment host for all tables backed up on that segment. By default, each gpbackup creates one compressed CSV file for each table that is backed up on the segment.
Note: If you use the --single-data-file option to combine table backups into a single file per segment, you cannot set the gprestore option --jobs to a value higher than 1 to perform a parallel restore operation.
--verbose
Optional. Print verbose log messages.
--version
Optional. Print the version number and exit.
--with-stats
Optional. Include query plan statistics in the backup set.
--help
Displays the online help.

Return Codes

One of these codes is returned after gpbackup completes.
  • 0 – Backup completed with no problems.
  • 1 – Backup completed with non-fatal errors. See log file for more information.
  • 2 – Backup failed with a fatal error. See log file for more information.

Examples

Backup all schemas and tables in the "demo" database, including global Greenplum Database system objects statistics:
$ gpbackup --dbname demo
Backup all schemas and tables in the "demo" database except for the "twitter" schema:
$ gpbackup --dbname demo --exclude-schema twitter
Backup only the "twitter" schema in the "demo" database:
$ gpbackup --dbname demo --include-schema twitter
Backup all schemas and tables in the "demo" database, including global Greenplum Database system objects and query statistics, and copy all backup files to the /home/gpadmin/backup directory:
$ gpbackup --dbname demo --with-stats --backup-dir /home/gpadmin/backup

This example uses --include-schema with --exclude-table to back up a schema except for a single table.

$ gpbackup --dbname demo --include-schema mydata --exclude-table mydata.addresses

You cannot use the option --exclude-schema with a table filtering option such as --include-table.