Greenplum Database Data Types

Greenplum Database Data Types

Greenplum Database has a rich set of native data types available to users. Users may also define new data types using the CREATE TYPE command. This reference shows all of the built-in data types. In addition to the types listed here, there are also some internally used data types, such as oid (object identifier), but those are not documented in this guide.

The following data types are specified by SQL: bit, bit varying, boolean, character varying, varchar, character, char, date, double precision, integer, interval, numeric, decimal, real, smallint, time (with or without time zone), and timestamp (with or without time zone).

Each data type has an external representation determined by its input and output functions. Many of the built-in types have obvious external formats. However, several types are either unique to PostgreSQL (and Greenplum Database), such as geometric paths, or have several possibilities for formats, such as the date and time types. Some of the input and output functions are not invertible. That is, the result of an output function may lose accuracy when compared to the original input.

Table 1. Greenplum Database Built-in Data Types
Name Alias Size Range Description
bigint int8 8 bytes -922337203​6854775808 to 922337203​6854775807 large range integer
bigserial serial8 8 bytes 1 to 922337203​6854775807 large autoincrementing integer
bit [ (n) ]   n bits bit string constant fixed-length bit string
bit varying [ (n) ]1 varbit actual number of bits bit string constant variable-length bit string
boolean bool 1 byte true/false, t/f, yes/no, y/n, 1/0 logical boolean (true/false)
box   32 bytes ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) rectangular box in the plane - not allowed in distribution key columns.
bytea1   1 byte + binary string sequence of octets variable-length binary string
character [ (n) ]1 char [ (n) ] 1 byte + n strings up to n characters in length fixed-length, blank padded
character varying [ (n) ]1 varchar [ (n) ] 1 byte + string size strings up to n characters in length variable-length with limit
cidr   12 or 24 bytes   IPv4 and IPv6 networks
circle   24 bytes <(x,y),r> (center and radius) circle in the plane - not allowed in distribution key columns.
date   4 bytes 4713 BC - 294,277 AD calendar date (year, month, day)
decimal [ (p, s) ]1 numeric [ (p, s) ] variable no limit user-specified precision, exact
double precision float8

float

8 bytes 15 decimal digits precision variable-precision, inexact
inet   12 or 24 bytes   IPv4 and IPv6 hosts and networks
integer int, int4 4 bytes -2147483648 to +2147483647 usual choice for integer
interval [ (p) ]   12 bytes -178000000 years - 178000000 years time span
lseg   32 bytes ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) line segment in the plane - not allowed in distribution key columns.
macaddr   6 bytes   MAC addresses
money   4 bytes -21474836.48 to +21474836.47 currency amount
path1   16+16n bytes [(x1,y1),...] geometric path in the plane - not allowed in distribution key columns.
point   16 bytes (x,y) geometric point in the plane - not allowed in distribution key columns.
polygon   40+16n bytes ((x1,y1),...) closed geometric path in the plane - not allowed in distribution key columns.
real float4 4 bytes 6 decimal digits precision variable-precision, inexact
serial serial4 4 bytes 1 to 2147483647 autoincrementing integer
smallint int2 2 bytes -32768 to +32767 small range integer
text1   1 byte + string size strings of any length variable unlimited length
time [ (p) ] [ without time zone ]   8 bytes 00:00:00[.000000] - 24:00:00[.000000] time of day only
time [ (p) ] with time zone timetz 12 bytes 00:00:00+1359 - 24:00:00-1359 time of day only, with time zone
timestamp [ (p) ] [ without time zone ]   8 bytes 4713 BC - 294,277 AD both date and time
timestamp [ (p) ] with time zone timestamptz 8 bytes 4713 BC - 294,277 AD both date and time, with time zone
xml1   1 byte + xml size xml of any length variable unlimited length
1 For variable length data types, if the data is greater than or equal to 127 bytes, the storage overhead is 4 bytes instead of 1.